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Pesticides agricoles et biocides

Pesticides: Risk Indicators

 

 Introduction

 The online PRIER Database
 Pesticide Risk Indicators: Guidance for Policy Makers
 History of the PRI work at the OECD
 1. Aquatic Risk Indicators (ARI)
 2. Terrestrial Risk Indicators (TERI)
 3. EU-HAIR Project
 4. Collecting Statistics on Pesticide Use and Sales in OECD countries

 Introduction

The OECD Pesticide Programme started to work on pesticide risk indicators in 1997. A number of activities were carried out until 2008 as described below in section "History of the PRI work at the OECD"

In 2013, the OECD restarted its activities in this area by establishing an ad hoc Expert Group on Pesticide Risk Indicators (EGPRI).

The EGPRI first developed an online database of available and active pesticide risk indicators and their evaluation reports (PRIER) and this work was followed by a guidance document to help risk and policy managers develop and select indicators to assess the sustainability of pesticide use and the effectiveness of measures taken to achieve that aim.

 

The online PRIER Database

An ad hoc Expert Group (EGPRI) was established in 2013 to develop an overview of existing pesticide risk indicators (PRIs) and address the question on how these can be used as tools in assessing the sustainability of pesticide use.

The EGPRI was formed to research the availability of risk indicators for pesticide use. The scope was originally limited to testing, validating and recommending international risk indicators for agricultural pesticide use, and for the moment excluding amenity and consumer use.

The EGPRI has developed a database of available and active Pesticide Risk Indicators, reported in a standardized evaluation format (PRI Evaluation Reports – PRIERs). A report has been developed which describes the online PRI database and how to use it.

The database is hosted by the Julius Kühn Institut (JKI) in Germany:

http://sf.jki.bund.de/oecd-prier/secured/index.jsf. Information can be accessed via the "view PREIRs" tab, however, users who wish to enter their own data should register first.

The online-PRIER is the first step of a project for which the final objective is to develop a guidance document for a recommended OECD suite of PRIs. This guidance is intended to help risk and policy managers develop and select indicators to assess the sustainability of pesticide use and the effectiveness of measures taken to achieve that aim. Other users may also benefit from this guidance.

 

Pesticide Risk Indicators: Guidance for Policy Makers

This document provides guidance for policy makers on both developing new or selecting existing indicators of risk to human health and the environment from the use of crop protection products (i.e., pesticides). These pesticide risk indicators are tools, based on modelling or actual data from monitoring studies or surveys, which predict the potential risk from the use of pesticides, and help policy makers assess the sustainability of pesticide use.

The document is divided into two parts: the first part provides guidance on selecting pesticide risk indicators, and the second part provides case studies which describe how OECD member countries have used such indicators.

 

History of the PRI work at the OECD

In 1997-2008 the OECD Pesticide Programme carried out a project to develop indicators that can help governments to track trends in risk resulting from agricultural pesticide use.

The project began with a workshop in Copenhagen in April, 1997 Report of the (first) OECD Workshop on Pesticide Risk Indicators , at which the OECD member countries agreed that pesticide risk indicators should:

  • be scientifically robust and user friendly;
  • link hazard and exposure data with data on pesticide use;
  • complement but not replicate or compete with the tools used for pesticide registration and risk assessment; and
  • address risks to man, and the environment separately.

A second workshop took place in Germany in June, 1999. The workshop brought the OECD governments together to decide how to implement the indicator project. Also, a survey of pesticide risk indicators being used by OECD countries was carried out.

Within this project two sets of indicators were developed: Aquatic Risk Indicators (ARI) and Terrestrial Risk Indicators (TERI). The indicators combine information on pesticide risks and use in order to show risk trends at a national or regional level. The indicators are intended to help governments measure progress in meeting their pesticide risk reduction goals.

The OECD Pesticides Programme followed closely the development and outcomes of the EU-funded HAIR project (HArmonised Environmental Indicators for Pesticide Risk) which addresses risks to aquatic and terrestrial organisms, ground water, public health (including pregnant women) and applicators of the pesticides.

 

1.  Aquatic Risk Indicators (ARI)

Following the Copenhagen workshop, the Pesticide Programme initiated a project to develop and test indicators for tracking trends in risks to aquatic organisms. The project developed, tested and experimented with three different indicators for tracking aggregate aquatic risk resulting from agricultural pesticide use.

The ARI project examined such issues as: the impact of data gaps on indicator results; the use of sales statistics as a basis for estimating pesticide use; the driving forces of pesticide risk indicators; simplicity vs. complexity in indicator design; and presentation of indicator results. The project was completed in December 2001. The results are presented in the three reports listed below.

Report of the OECD Pesticide Aquatic Risk Indicators Expert Group (Paris, 2000)

  • this is a report of the first phase of the project, in which the indicators were designed and tested;
  • it provides the rationale and specifications for the three indicators.

Summary Report of the OECD Project on Pesticide Aquatic Risk Indicators (Paris, 2002)

  • this is a summary of the results of the entire project;
  • it includes observations and reflections on the development and use of indicators

Technical Report of the OECD Project on Pesticide Aquatic Risk Indicators (Paris, 2002)

  • this is a report of the second phase of the project;
  • it includes detailed reports from the six governments that experimented with using the indicators to produce national risk trends.

In addition, the following short report presents the results of the OECD project on pesticide aquatic risk indicators, carried out from 1998 to 2001, and provides the summary conclusions and lessons learnt during this project.

Introduction by the OECD Working Group on Pesticides to the Report of the OECD Project on Pesticide Aquatic Risk Indicators (Paris, 2002)

An ARI computer program that runs the three OECD Aquatic Risk Indicators was also developed; it uses a Microsoft Access database which contains values for hazard and exposure properties of approximately 300 pesticides. It also contains tables (e.g. for crops and pesticide use) to be completed by the user.

OECD Aquatic Risk Indicators Computer Program: User Guide (instructions for using the program that runs the three indicators, including instructions for filling in the tables).

 

2.  Terrestrial Risk Indicators (TERI)

The project on terrestrial risk indicators was carried out from mid-2002 to 2004. The TERI final report is available here.

 

3.  EU-HAIR Project

The OECD Pesticides Programme followed closely the development and outcomes of the EU-funded HAIR project (HArmonised Environmental Indicators for Pesticide Risk). Information is available on the EU-HAIR web site (see the HAIR2014 and the HAIR2010 websites).

http://www.pesticidemodels.eu/hair/home

http://www.pesticidemodels.eu/hair/hair2014

http://www.pesticidemodels.eu/hair/hair2010  

 

4.  Collecting Statistics on Pesticide Use and Sales in OECD countries

In parallel to and related to the work on pesticide risk indicators, a number of activities were started on collecting and using data on pesticide usage and sales. The indicator project prompted the OECD Pesticide Programme to contribute to, and recommend use of, a set of guidelines published by Eurostat, the European agency for statistics:

In 1997 and in 2008, the OECD carried out two surveys to better know about countries’ approaches to the collection and use of pesticide usage and sales data. The survey reports follow below:

 

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