Politiques et données sur l'emploi

Collective bargaining


Collective bargaining and workers’ voice are key labour rights, as well as potentially strong enablers of inclusive labour market. As the digital transformation, globalisation and demographic changes, are re-shaping the labour market, collective bargaining is well placed to design solutions to emerging collective challenges. Yet, its capacity to deliver is threatened by the weakening of labour relations in many countries, the flourishing of new − often precarious – forms of employment and the progressive individualisation of employment relationships.

Collective bargaining

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data on collective bargaining

Data can be accessed using the OECD data warehouse OECD.stat

>> For information on other labour market policies and instutions in OECD countries see the OECD Employment Database

key publications

 Under pressure: Labour market and wage developments in OECD countries

 July 2023 

This chapter presents the latest trends in the labour market with a particular focus on wages in times of high inflation. The role of minimum wages and collective bargaining is analysed in detailed. The findings show that, between 2020 and 2023, on average across OECD countries, nominal statutory minimum wages have kept pace with inflation thanks to discretionary increases or indexation mechanisms. In contrast, wages negotiated in collective agreements have declined in real terms, as they are reacting with some delays due to the staggered and rather infrequent nature of wage bargaining.

Employment outlook 2023 cover

OECD/AIAS ICTWSS Database on collective bargaining and workers’ voice

February 2020 

  • 56 countries
  • 60 years
  • 100+ variables
  • Detailed information on trade unions, employers’ associations, statutory minimum wages, organisation of collective bargaining & wage co-ordination, social pacts and works councils

Negotiating our way up: Collective bargaining in a changing world of work

November 2019

Negotiating our way up provides new insights on the effect of collective bargaining systems on employment, job quality and labour market inclusiveness, and considers their renewed role in a changing world of work. The report provides a useful resource for policy-makers, trade unions and employers’ organisations interested in understanding how to make collective bargaining work better for all in the future.

 Negotiating your way up

Facing the future of work: How to make the most of collective bargaining

April 2019 

This chapter discusses how collective bargaining and workers’ voice can be flexible tools complementing labour market regulation in fostering a more rewarding and inclusive future of work. The chapter reviews what type of government intervention may be required to keep bargaining systems fit for purpose and to make the most of collective bargaining in a changing world of work. Finally, the chapter documents how existing institutions and social partners are adjusting to new challenges in the labour market, as well as the role of emerging actors and practices.

Employment Outlook 2019

The role of collective bargaining systems for good labour market performance

July 2018

This chapter assesses the role of collective bargaining for labour market performance in OECD countries. It builds on the detailed characterisation of collective bargaining systems and practices presented in the previous chapter. Using a rich mix of country-, sector- firm- and worker-level data, this chapter investigates the link of different collective bargaining settings with employment, wages, wage inequality and productivity. It then discusses how broad-based employee and employer organisations, administrative extensions, organised forms of decentralisation and wage co-ordination may contribute to better balance inclusiveness and flexibility in the labour market.

 Employment outlook 2018


Collective bargaining in a changing world of work

July 2017

This chapter provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of collective bargaining systems and workers’ voice arrangements across OECD countries. Despite the fall in trade union density and collective bargaining coverage in the last 40 years, collective bargaining remains a key labour market institution. Yet, the understanding of this key institution is limited by the fact that collective bargaining systems are often described with crude indicators and oversimplified in the literature. This chapter describes in more details the features of collective bargaining systems that are particularly important for labour market outcomes.




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