B. Disponibilité des données et contenu de la base EODB
C. Questions plus spécifiques
A. Base de données des perspectives économiques (EODB)
Q: Qu'est ce que la base de données des perspectives économiques (EODB)?
R: The Economic Outlook Database (EODB) is a comprehensive and consistent set of macroeconomic data. It contains the biannual macroeconomic forecasts for each OECD country and the OECD area as a whole. Almost all data shown in the statistical annex of the Economic Outlook publication can be found in EODB. For more information, see the EODB inventory.
Q: Quand la base de données EODB est-elle mise à jour?
R: The Economic Outlook Database (EODB) is released twice a year: end of spring and end of autumn. The spring edition covers the period which goes up to current year +1. The autumn edition goes to current year +2.
Q: Est-ce que le numéro à côté du sigle EO désigne le numéro d'édition? Et si oui, quelle est la dernière édition?
R: Yes it is the edition number. EO90 for example refers to the database which includes the data of the 90th edition of the Economic Outlook, autumn 2011, forecast up to 2013. (EO 91: spring 2012, forecast up to 2013; EO 92: autumn 2012, forecast up to 2014; etc.)
There is a permanent URL for the Economic Outlook page which is automatically updated to the latest edition:
Q: Comment faire pour accéder aux données sous forme électronique?
R: A subset of key data series is available free of charge via OECD.stat (OECDdotStat) and online Excel files.
Q: Comment puis-je accéder aux précédentes éditions?
R: All editions are available in OECD.stat. However when clicking on editions before the 60th (editions 1 to 59), you will notice that all dimensions are empty. Between the 50th and the 59th edition, it is only possible to view the data in MS Excel format. Before the 50th edition, data are only visible in pdf format. Click on the "ready-made files" icon to view the MS Excel or pdf file.
Q: Est-ce que les données sont publiques ou est-ce que je dois m'abonner pour accéder aux données?
Q: C'est quoi le Flash file?
R: The flash file is made public at the time of the press release and includes about 15 indicators by country.
B. Disponibilité des données et contenu de la base EODB
Q: Quel est le contenu de la base de données EODB ? Quels sont les pays? Quelles sont les variables?
R: The Economic Outlook Database (EODB) includes data on all OECD countries and for selected non-Member countries (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa). It also includes data on country groupings (OECD euro area, Total OECD, G7, Oil producers, World). Variables cover all major economic dimensions. For more information, see the EODB inventory.
Q: Est-ce que les données sont définitives, provisoire ou estimées? Quelles sont les derniers points historiques?
R: For most countries, data over the three last years should be considered as provisional and subject to revisions. During this 3-year period national statistics offices compile more information and improve their estimates. All data before the last 3 years can be considered as final and actual, unless a change in definition or classification is implemented. All time series do not end up at the same date. The last historical points (actual and provisional) are given in a MS Excel file for each EODB edition. In OECD.stat, select a dataset under "economic projections" and then click on the "Ready made files" icon to view the link to the MS Excel file with the last historical points.
Q: Quelle est la fréquence utilisée dans EODB? Trimestrielle? Annuelle? Est-ce que les données trimestrielles sont ajustées des variations saisonnières?
R: The public version of EODB includes annual data only. The complete version includes annual and quarterly data. All quarterly data are seasonally adjusted. Seasonal adjustment is mostly carried out by the original source National Statistical Offices and therefore varies by country. An up-to-date guide to current methods in use by country is available on the web. Where seasonally adjusted series are not available, adjustment is done in-house by the OECD using an X11-based method subject to annual constraints.
Q: Quelles sont les années de base utilisées dans EODB?
R: The EODB uses the reference year used by countries in their national official publications. The reference year is specific to each country. All national reference years are listed in the EODB inventory.
The base year for country groupings (for example OECD total) was 2005 in the 90 edition. This standard base year is changed approximately every 5 years.
Base years used in previous EODB editions are listed in a downloadable Excel file.
Q: Quelles sont les unités? Quel est la monnaie dans EODB?
R: All series (levels) are expressed in basic units, i.e. with power code = 0. Some indices refer to 1, others to 100. See the indicator title, the related metadata or the EODB inventory for more information.
All level data in EODB are expressed in national currency, except trade and country groupings which are shown in US dollars. Trade data are converted to US dollars using exchange rates. Country groupings are calculated using Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs). Read more about units and currency in EODB.
Q: Quels sont les principaux changements depuis la dernière édition?
R: The EODB inventory contains a section on main changes since the last edition. Database content and structure adapts over time to reflect changes in the source data sets and new subjects studied by the OECD. Information relating to data quality, changes in statistical sources and methodologies, addition or suppression of specific variables is fully documented in the EODB inventory.
Q: Comment sont calculés les taux de croissance?
R: There are a number of different conventions used in expressing growth rates in the economics and statistics literature. Read more about Growth rates in EODB.
Q: Concernant la dette du gouvernement, quelles sont les différences entre les définitions du SCN93 et celles du traité de Maastricht?
R: There are two main differences between the SNA93 and Maastricht definitions of debt. The first difference is that Maastricht gross debt does not include liabilities related to other accounts payable (comprising trade credits and advances), financial derivatives, and insurance technical reserves. The second difference concerns the valuation methodology.
The Maastricht definition evaluates debt at face value, which is equivalent to the amount that the government has to pay back to creditors at maturity. In contrast, the SNA93 employs market values. Maastricht debt is thus a better measure for assessing government refinancing needs, but the SNA93 captures more adequately the cost of buying back debt.
For non-tradable debt instruments market valuation is not available, requiring imputation of prices by some alternative methods. Also market valuation might be problematic for tradable instruments when markets are volatile or/and illiquid. Consequently, the SNA93 measure can be more volatile than the Maastricht one. Identifying the exact contributions of the various factors to differences in debt level according to the SNA93 and Maastricht definitions is not straightforward.
Q: Pourquoi les données sur le passif financier des administrations publiques ne sont pas identiques aux données publiées par le FMI?
A: Government gross debt (gross financial liabilities) refers to the financial liabilities (short and long-term) of all the institutions in the general government sector, as defined in the SNA93/ESA95, typically mainly in the form of government bills and bonds.
Valuation of financial liabilities among countries can differ. SNA93/ESA95 require valuation at market value or by the amount the debtor must repay to extinguish the claim (for non-marketable liabilities), but some countries as the United States and Canada value government bonds at their face value. (i.e. at issue price).
The OECD data are based on SNA93, while the IMF World Economic Outlook data are based on the IMF Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM 2001). The major difference between GFSM2001 and SNA93/ESA95, regarding government debt, concerns unfunded pension liabilities, which are included in debt according to the GFSM 2001, but excluded in the SNA93/ESA95 data. Other, smaller differences between the two systems add to the discrepancy.
Q: Comment sont obtenus les chiffres concernant un groupe de pays, comme la zone euro?
A: The euro area and the other country groupings are calculated within the database. They are not taken from another source. "Euro area" refers to the group of euro area countries that are at the same time members of the OECD. See the page on Sources and Methods: on Aggregation for more information.
Q: Quelle est la différence entre les statistiques sur les recettes publiques et les données du SCN sur le revenu des administrations publiques?
A: A system of national accounts (SNA) seeks to provide a coherent framework for recording and presenting the main flows relating respectively to production, consumption, accumulation and external transactions of a given economic area, usually a country or a major region within a country. Government revenues are an important part of the transactions recorded in SNA.
There are, however, some differences between the classification of taxes in the OECD Revenue Statistics and SNA concepts, which are listed below. They arise because the aim of the former is to provide the maximum disaggregation of statistical data on what are generally regarded as taxes by tax administrations.
a) OECD includes social security contributions in total tax revenues;
b) there are different points of view on whether or not some levies and fees are classified as taxes;
c) OECD excludes imputed taxes or subsidies resulting from the operation of official multiple exchange rates;
d) there are differences in the treatment of non-wastable tax credits.