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  • 2-April-2021

    English

    Blueprint for improved measurement of the international ocean economy - An exploration of satellite accounting for ocean economic activity

    Sustainably managing the ocean requires reliable measures of the ocean’s contributions to society and the effects that human activities have on the marine environment. This paper informs current international discussions on the measurement of ocean economic activities. It summarises the extent to which the ocean is crucial to society, outlines national approaches to measuring ocean economies, establishes an OECD definition of ocean economic activities for statistical purposes, and introduces a plan to improve international ocean economy statistics through the pragmatic development of satellite accounts. By measuring the full range of ocean economic activities, this framework will improve evidence on ocean sustainability and lay the foundations for ocean accounts that include economic-environmental linkages.
  • 31-mars-2021

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Belgique 2021 (Version abrégée)

    La Belgique a progressé en découplant plusieurs pressions environnementales de la croissance économique, en améliorant l’épuration des eaux usées et en étendant les zones protégées. Les régions ont atteint des niveaux élevés de récupération et de recyclage et ont été les pionnières des politiques d'économie circulaire. Toutefois, des efforts supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour progresser vers la neutralité carbone, réduire la pollution de l'air et de l'eau, enrayer la perte de biodiversité et consolider les résultats des initiatives d'économie circulaire. Le renforcement de la coordination entre le gouvernement fédéral et les régions, et entre les régions, ainsi que l'amélioration de la cohérence des politiques seront des facteurs clés de progrès. À mesure que l'urgence COVID-19 se fait moins pressante, les efforts de redressement devraient viser à remettre le pays sur la bonne voie pour atteindre les objectifs de développement durable. Investir dans les infrastructures vertes et à faible émission de carbone, promouvoir l'économie circulaire, renforcer le prix du carbone et supprimer progressivement les subventions néfastes à l'environnement devraient être des priorités. Ce rapport est le troisième Examen environnemental de la Belgique. Il évalue les progrès réalisés vers le développement durable et la croissance verte, avec des chapitres spéciaux sur la biodiversité, la gestion des déchets et des matières et l'économie circulaire. Cette version abrégée contient le résumé, ainsi que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport, qui reposent sur les trois chapitres consacrés aux évolutions et faits récents, à la gouvernance et à la croissance verte, ainsi que sur les deux chapitres qui examinent en détail la problématique de la biodiversité, et celle de la gestion des déchets et des matières et l'économie circulaire. La version intégrale du rapport est disponible en anglais sur le site de l’OCDE.
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  • 30-March-2021

    English

    OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2021

    This report draws on more than 1 300 government budgetary transfers and tax expenditures providing preferential treatment for the production and consumption of fossil fuels as documented in the 2020 OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels to track progress in reform of support. It sets out principal trends across 50 OECD, G20 and European Union (EU) Eastern Partnership (EaP) economies, including as resulting from the COVID-19 crisis and novel sectoral decomposition of Inventory data. It reports on developments in tracking and monitoring fossil fuel support in the context of the G20 and the UN Sustainable Development Goals, and with respect to enhancing the interpretation of tax expenditure data. Finally, the report offers a sequential framework to assist governments assess and address the effects of fossil-fuel support measures and their reform, given ongoing challenges in gaining traction for reform.
  • 25-March-2021

    English

    Water Governance in Peru

    While COVID 19 has hit Peru particularly hard, with about 1.4 million cases as of March 2021, the pandemic further emphasised the importance of water and sanitation for health, the environment and the economy. The country is not yet on track to meet the targets of SDG 6 'Clean water and sanitation' by 2030, with 3 million Peruvians (9.2% of the population) lacking access to water services and 8.2 million Peruvians (25.2%) lacking access to sewerage services, and a large urban rural divide. In addition, between 2000 and 2020, floods affected an estimated 4.43 million people, while inadequate management of solid waste and some economic activities are amongst the causes of water pollution, leading to severe public health issues, and social conflicts. In the face of climate change and demographic growth, strengthening water governance in Peru is key for long term water security improvements. The report provides an analysis of water governance in the country and policy recommendations to: strengthen the multi sectoral approach to water; improve the use of economic instruments to protect and sustainably use water resources, its sources and related ecosystem services; and strengthen regulatory conditions to improved access to safe drinking water and sanitation in urban and rural areas.
  • 24-March-2021

    English

    Water Governance in Cape Town, South Africa

    In 2018, the city of Cape Town, South Africa, was close to the 'Day Zero', requiring all taps to be shut off and citizens to fetch a daily 25 litre per person. Though the day-zero was avoided, it is estimated that, at the current rate, South Africa will experience a 17% water deficit by 2030 if no action is taken to respond to existing trends. Lessons learned during that drought crisis have been valuable for the city to manage the short-term COVID-19 implications and design long-term solutions towards greater water resilience. As a result of a multi-stakeholder policy dialogue involving 100+ stakeholders from the city of Cape Town and South Africa, this report assesses key water risks and governance challenges in Cape Town, and provides policy recommendations towards more effective, efficient and inclusive water management building on the OECD Principles on Water Governance. In particular, the report calls for strengthening integrated basin governance, transparency, integrity, stakeholder engagement, capacities at all levels of government, financial sustainability and for advancing the water allocation reform to better manage trade-offs across multiple users.
  • 24-March-2021

    English

    Sustainable Infrastructure for Low-carbon Development in the EU Eastern Partnership - Hotspot Analysis and Needs Assessment

    This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in the six countries of the EU Eastern Partnership: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastructure development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.
  • 18-March-2021

    English

    Monitoring, evaluation and learning for climate risk management

    This working paper focuses on the role of monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) for promoting effective climate risk management. It aims to introduce a conceptual framework that governments and development co-operation providers can draw on when developing MEL frameworks for their interventions on climate risk management. The paper also presents existing methods and tools to address the technical challenges to developing such MEL frameworks. Further, it provides examples of good practice for adjusting or updating existing MEL frameworks in support of climate risk management. It contributes to the project Strengthening Climate Resilience: Guidance for Governments and Development Co-operation of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
  • 15-March-2021

    English

    The inequalities-environment nexus - Towards a people-centred green transition

    The COVID-19 crisis has amplified the urgency of addressing together the dual challenges of inequality and environmental degradation. This paper contributes to the debate on the inequalities-environment nexus by analysing the consequences of the environmental degradation and of environmental policies on four well-being dimensions: health, income and wealth, work and job quality, and safety. The analysis shows that the impacts of environmental degradation tends to be concentrated among vulnerable groups and households. At the same, the benefits and costs of environmental policies are also likely to be unevenly distributed across households. In this context, policy packages for an inclusive green transition should aim at: (i) mitigating the possible regressive impact of pricing environmental externalities, (ii) investing in human capital and upgrading skills to facilitate labour reallocation, (iii) addressing systemic inequalities with sectoral and place-based policies, (iv) ensuring efficient and responsive governance. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for an effective framework to measure progress towards a people-centred green recovery, and possible areas of future work.
  • 23-février-2021

    Français

    M. Angel Gurría, Secrétaire général de l’OCDE, à l’événement du Empire Club of Canada, 23 février 2021

    M. Angel Gurría, Secrétaire général de l’OCDE, a prononcé une allocution à l’Empire Club of Canada, “Comment le Canada peut-il reconstruire en mieux ? L’avis de l’OCDE", le 23 février 2021.

    Documents connexes
  • 23-February-2021

    English

    Empire Club of Canada: “How can Canada build back better?”, 23 February 2021

    Mr. Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, addressed the Empire Club of Canada on “How can Canada build back better?”, on 23 February 2021.

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