Further Reading


Measuring Fossil Fuel Subsidies in the Context of the Sustainable Development Goals

Measuring Fossil Fuel Subsidies in the Context of the Sustainable Development Goals therefore sets out to describe current international and national practices of monitoring fossil fuel subsidies, and proposes a methodology for the global and national monitoring of fossil fuel subsidies. Chapter I introduces the relevance of fossil fuel subsidies for the SDGs. Chapter II explains the requirements for monitoring SDG Indicator 12.c.1, and sets out options for the SDG monitoring. Chapter III gives an overview of the current state of monitoring and describes best practice methods for measuring fossil fuel subsidies. Chapter IV proposes a methodology for reporting against SDG Indicator 12.c.1.

Taxing Energy Use 2018 cover

Taxing Energy Use 2018

Emissions from energy use cause environmental and health damages and they also contribute to climate change. By charging for these damages, taxes on energy use can reduce excessive emissions, while raising revenue that can be used to fund vital government services. This report assesses the magnitude and coverage of taxes on energy use - carbon taxes and other specific taxes on energy use - in 2015, across different countries and selected country groups, six sectors and five main fuel groups. It also considers change in effective tax rates on energy use between 2012 and 2015. The analysis is based on the OECD’s Taxing Energy Use database, a unique dataset to compare coverage and magnitude of specific taxes on energy use across 42 OECD and G20 economies, which together represent approximately 80% of global energy use and CO2-emissions associated with energy use.



Taxing Energy Use 2015

Energy is a critical input into the production and consumption patterns that support economic and social wellbeing. However, many forms of energy use contribute to the environmental and climate challenges societies face today. Taxation is a key tool by which governments can influence energy use to contain its environmental impacts. This report provides a systematic analysis of the structure and level of energy taxes in OECD and selected other countries; together, they cover 80% of global energy use.


Energy Prices and Taxes, quarterly periodical

Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.


Transitional policies to assist the poor while phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption

Contribution by the World Bank to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, with input from the IMF, the IEA, the IEF, the OECD, the OFID, and OPEC.


Modelling of distributional impacts of energy subsidy reforms: An illustration with Indonesia

This report develops an analytical framework that assesses the macroeconomic, environmental and distributional consequences of energy subsidy reforms. The framework is applied to the case of Indonesia to study the consequences in this country of a gradual phase out of all energy consumption subsidies between 2012 and 2020.


The cost of air pollution: Health impacts of road transport

Outdoor air pollution kills more than 3 million people across the world every year, and causes health problems from asthma to heart disease for many more. This is costing societies very large amounts in terms of the value of lives lost and ill health. Based on extensive new epidemiological evidence since the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study, and OECD estimates of the Value of Statistical Life, this report provides evidence on the health impacts from air pollution and the related economic costs.


Inventory of estimated budgetary support and tax expenditures for fossil fuels 2013

This Inventory is concerned with direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to fossil fuels, regardless of their impact or of the purpose for which the measures were first put in place. It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. For each of the 34 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its energy economy, and of the budgetary and tax-related measures provided at the central-government level (and, in the case of federal countries, for selected sub-national units of government) relating to fossil-fuel production or consumption.


Joint report by IEA, OPEC, OECD and World Bank on fossil-fuel and other energy subsidies

An update of the G20 Pittsburgh and Toronto Commitments (pdf, 14 pages, 750 KB)

This joint report to the G20 Summit in Cannes in November 2011 highlights the extent of subsidies and other support to fossil fuel production and consumption, the potential economic and environmental benefits of subsidy reform, and guidance on how countries can undertake the reforms while still protecting the poor.