Institutional investors (investment funds, insurance companies and pension funds) are major collectors of savings and suppliers of funds to financial markets. Their role as financial intermediaries and their impact on investment strategies have grown significantly over recent years along with deregulation and globalisation of financial markets.
This publication provides a unique set of statistics that reflect the level and structure of the financial assets of institutional investors in the OECD countries, and in the Russian Federation. Concepts and definitions are predominantly based on the System of National Accounts. Data are derived from national sources.
Data include outstanding amounts of financial assets such as currency and deposits, securities, loans, and shares. When relevant, they are further broken down according to maturity and residency. The publication covers investment funds, of which open-end companies and closed-end companies, as well as insurance corporations and autonomous pension funds. Indicators are presented as percentages of GDP allowing for international comparisons, and at country level, both in national currency and as percentages of total financial assets of the investor. Time series display available data for the last eight years.
English, PDF, 351kb
The tax burden in Estonia declined by 0.3 percentage points from 32.1% to 31.8% in 2013. The corresponding figure for the OECD average was an increase of 0.4 percentage points from 33.7% to 34.1%. The Estonian standard VAT rate is 20%, which is above the OECD average. The average VAT/GST standard rate in the OECD was 19.1% on 1 January 2014.
Country notes outlining regional variations in health, jobs, safety, environment, access to services, civic engagement, housing, education, income, and employment. These notes are from the OECD publication "How's Life in Your Region?".
Getting regions and cities 'right', adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work, is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. View the country factsheets from the publication OECD Regional Outlook 2014.
Estonian, PDF, 389kb
Education at a Glance 2014: Estonia (Estonian)
Country notes with main key findings of the book and key fact tables: a customised snapshot of a country's educational environment, highlighting the most important issues in the educational landscape.
This page contains all information relating to implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Estonia.
The average worker in Estonia faced a tax burden on labour income (tax wedge) of 39.9% in 2013 compared with the OECD average of 35.9%. Estonia was ranked 15 of the 34 OECD member countries in this respect.
This publication compiles the material developed and discussed at a conference on the economic impact of emigration jointly organised by the OECD and the Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 17 December 2012.
This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive.
The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.
The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states.