Economics and policies for biodiversity: OECD's response
Tracking economic instruments and finance for biodiversity
Economic instruments, such as taxes, fees and charges, tradable permits, payments for ecosystem services schemes, and environmentally-motivated subsidies, provide signals to both producers and consumers to behave in a more environmentally-sustainable way. These instruments also provide continuous incentives to achieve environmental objectives in a more cost-effective manner, and most are able to mobilise finance and/or generate revenue. Economic instruments are the so- called “positive incentives” embedded in the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, notably Target 18, and previously reflected in CBD Aichi Target 3.
The OECD tracks biodiversity-relevant economic instruments and the finance they generate through its database on Policy Instruments for the Environment (PINE). More than 120 countries are currently contributing to this database. These indicators have also been used by the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership to monitor progress towards CBD Aichi Target 3. The data are also used as an indicator to monitor progress towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 15.a.1 on biodiversity finance.
The biodiversity-relevant data from PINE is extracted on a regular basis. The most recent brochure was released in September, 2021: