Economic instruments, such as taxes, fees and charges, tradable permits, payments for ecosystem services schemes, and environmentally-motivated subsidies, provide signals to both producers and consumers to behave in a more environmentally-sustainable way. These instruments also provide continuous incentives to achieve environmental objectives in a more cost-effective manner, and most are able to mobilise finance and/or generate revenue. Economic instruments are the so-called “positive incentives” embedded in the 2011-2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets, notably Target 3.
Ongoing work at the OECD in this area is to collect new data on additional economic instruments, namely Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and Biodiversity Offsets. At the end of 2019, the OECD initiated a pilot survey of PES and biodiversity offsets in selected countries. A full survey of all OECD member and key partner countries will be circulated in 2020. Any other government who wishes to receive and complete this survey, please contact email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.