Economic instruments, such as taxes, fees and charges, tradable permits, payments for ecosystem services schemes, and environmentally-motivated subsidies, provide signals to both producers and consumers to behave in a more environmentally-sustainable way. These instruments also provide continuous incentives to achieve environmental objectives in a more cost-effective manner, and most are able to mobilise finance and/or generate revenue. Economic instruments are the so- called “positive incentives” embedded in the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, notably Target 18, and previously reflected in CBD Aichi Target 3.
Ongoing work at the OECD in this area is to collect new data on additional economic instruments, namely Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and Biodiversity Offsets. Questionnaires were sent to OECD member and key partner countries, as well as others in late 2020. Any other government who wishes to receive and complete the questionnaire, please contact email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.