Economics and policies for biodiversity: OECD's response

Tracking economic instruments and finance for biodiversity


Economic instruments, such as taxes, fees and charges, tradable permits, payments for ecosystem services schemes, and environmentally-motivated subsidies, provide signals to both producers and consumers to behave in a more environmentally-sustainable way. These instruments also provide continuous incentives to achieve environmental objectives in a more cost-effective manner, and most are able to mobilise finance and/or generate revenue. Economic instruments are the so-called “positive incentives” embedded in the 2011-2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets, notably Target 3.

The OECD tracks biodiversity-relevant economic instruments and the finance they generate through its database on Policy Instruments for the Environment (PINE). More than 110 countries are currently contributing to this database. These indicators are also being used by the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership to monitor progress towards CBD Aichi Target 3. The data have also been recently approved as an indicator to monitor progress towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 15.a.1 on biodiversity finance.

The biodiversity-relevant data from PINE is extracted on a regular basis. The new updated brochure was released in April, 2020.

For 2018 data, please see the OECD (2018) Brochure: Tracking Economic Instruments and Finance for Biodiversity.

Download the 2020 brochure (PDF)

Ongoing work on tracking economic instruments and finance for biodiversity

Ongoing work at the OECD in this area is to collect new data on additional economic instruments, namely Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and Biodiversity Offsets. At the end of 2019, the OECD initiated a pilot survey of PES and biodiversity offsets in selected countries.  A full survey of all OECD member and key partner countries will be circulated in 2020. Any other government who wishes to receive and complete this survey, please contact and  

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