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Reports


  • 27-September-2021

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Lithuania 2021

    Lithuania’s rapid economic growth has increased many environmental pressures. The country has declared ambitious medium- and long-term climate change mitigation goals. However, existing policies will not be enough to meet them. Total greenhouse gas emissions have not declined over the last decade, while those from transport have been rising rapidly. Lithuania needs to build on its impressive progress in moving away from landfilling to reduce waste generation and steer towards a circular economy. Water pollution with nutrients from the increased use of fertilisers and insufficiently treated wastewater must also be addressed. These efforts require improved integration of environmental considerations into sectoral policies and a whole-of-government approach to environmental management. Lithuania is implementing a series of positive changes in environment-related taxation. However, the trend of declining public environmental expenditure should be reversed. One priority area is additional investment in public transport and improvements in cycling and walking conditions that would help steer user behaviour towards sustainable transport modes. This is the first OECD Environmental Performance Review of Lithuania. It evaluates progress towards green growth and sustainable development, with a special chapter focusing on sustainable mobility.
  • 17-September-2021

    English

    Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries: Aggregate Trends Updated with 2019 Data

    This report presents aggregate trends of annual climate finance provided and mobilised by developed countries for developing countries for the period 2013-19. The trends are presented by finance source, climate theme and sector, geography, and financial instrument. As this report is intended as a short technical update to the previously published 2013-18 figures, the information provided remains at an aggregate level. An expanded and disaggregated analysis will be conducted in 2022 for climate finance in 2019 and 2020, once data for 2020 is available.
  • 15-September-2021

    English

    Environment at a Glance Indicators

    This new web format for Environment at a Glance Indicators provides real-time interactive on-line access to the latest comparable OECD-country data on the environment from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance in countries and to track the course towards sustainable development. The web version allows users to play with the data and graphics, download and share them, and consult and download thematic web-books. These indicators provide key messages on major environmental trends in areas such as climate change, biodiversity, water resources, air quality, circular economy and ocean resources. They are accompanied by a short Environment at a Glance report that presents a digest of the key messages stemming from the indicators.
  • 14-September-2021

    English

    The role of intermediaries to facilitate water-related investment

    A wide range of organisations operate at the interface between the demand for (e.g. water agencies or service providers) and the supply of finance (e.g. financing institutions and financiers at large) with the aim of bridging the substantial financing gap for water-related investments. These entities, referred to in this analysis as 'intermediaries', include those working upstream on the enabling environment for finance facilitation; transaction advisory supporting partnership development (of which financing is one component), private sector lending windows of donors and international financial institutions, and dedicated financing facilities. These intermediaries play multiple roles along the investment value chain, in various geographies and at various scales (international, national, regional, local). However a systematic assessment of these intermediaries, their role and the key functions performed has been lacking to date along with an assessment of the gaps, overlaps and misalignments compared with the existing bottlenecks to mobilise financing. The analysis presented in this Working Paper aims to fill this gap. This paper identifies and analyses a sample of 52 diverse intermediaries active in deploying one or more key functions across the investment value chain for 3 specific sub-sectors: utilities, small scale water and sanitation service providers and nature-based solutions. The analysis assesses the extent to which the activities of these intermediaries is aligned with the critical functions needed to mobilise finance across the sub-sectors. It identifies gaps, reduncies and misalignments and calls for a shift from the current opportunistic approach to a more strategic approach in the design and activities of intermediaries, supported by governments and financial institutions. The paper contributes to a forthcoming OECD report Financing a Water Secure Future that distils key insights from the past several years of engagement via the Roundtable on Financing Water and related analytical work. It was jointly developed by the OECD and The World Bank Global Water Practice, in the context of our cooperation on the Roundtable on Financing Water.
  • 18-August-2021

    English

    Green Budgeting in OECD Countries

    Climate and environmental considerations have become pressing priorities for governments in recent years. International commitments such as the Paris Agreement, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets under the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have spurred momentum across the OECD to prioritise green objectives to policy-making processes. As these efforts require systematic considerations across all parts of government, countries have identified the budget process as playing a key role in ensuring that priorities relating to the environment and climate change are part of the policy-making process. Thus, there has been an emergence of 'green budgeting' practices across the OECD. Countries use green budgeting as a tool of budgetary policy making to provide policy makers with a clearer understanding of the environmental and climate impacts of budgeting choices, while bringing evidence together in a systematic and co-ordinated manner for more informed decision making to fulfil national and international commitments. This publication presents the findings from the first survey on green budgeting across OECD countries and provides information on the extent to which countries have the key elements of an effective approach to pursue environmental and climate priorities.
  • 5-August-2021

    English

    Fossil-Fuel Subsidies in the EU’s Eastern Partner Countries - Estimates and Recent Policy Developments

    Based on the OECD standard methodology, the study presents quantitative estimates of government support to consumers and producers of coal, oil and related petroleum products and natural gas, and electricity and heat generated from these fossil fuels. This report summarises the main findings of the analysis of fossil-fuel subsidy schemes in the six European Union's Eastern Partner (EaP) countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. The study updates the 2018 Inventory of Energy Subsidies in the EU’s Eastern Partnership Countries by providing data and estimates for 2016‑19. The analysis focuses on measuring two major types of fossil-fuel subsidies: direct transfers of funds to producers and consumers; and tax expenditure. This report also briefly discusses the taxation and energy pricing policies that have had direct or indirect impact on the evolution of fossil-fuel subsidies in the region. Detailed estimates of all individual support measures for each of the six countries are provided in Annexes to the report.
  • 5-August-2021

    English

    Transition finance: Investigating the state of play - A stocktake of emerging approaches and financial instruments

    With only a decade left to reduce emissions drastically, the scale, pace and extent of global transformation needed is truly demanding. Long-term emission goals and the nature of the low-emission transition in each country will be a function of its unique socio-economic priorities, capabilities, resource endowment, vision for post 2050 economic structure, and social and political acceptability of what constitutes a just transition. As we enter the 'decade for delivery', a whole of economy approach is needed to realise the low-emission transition. This includes focusing not only on upscaling zero and near-zero emitting technologies and businesses but also supporting, to the extent possible, the progressive lowering of emissions in high emitting and hard to abate sectors. In this context, 'transition finance' is gaining traction among governments and market participants. To identify the core features of transition finance, this paper reviews 12 transition relevant taxonomies, guidance and principles by public (Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Russia, European Union, EBRD) and private actors (Climate Bonds Initiative, International Capital Markets Association, Research Institute for Environmental Finance Japan, AXA Investment Managers and DBS), as well as 39 transition relevant financial instruments (vanilla transition bonds, key performance indicator-linked fixed income securities). This paper does not aim to define transition finance, but rather to review emerging approaches and instruments to highlight commonalities, divergences as well as issues to consider for coherent market development and progress towards global environmental objectives. Based on the review, this paper puts forth two preliminary views. First, that the essence of transition finance is triggering entity-wide change to reduce exposure to transition risk; second, that transition finance may be better understood as capital market instruments with a set of core functions/attributes rather than a specific format or label.
  • 22-July-2021

    English, PDF, 1,625kb

    G20 report: Aligning short-term recovery measures with longer-term climate and environmental objectives

    This report has been prepared in support of the G20 Presidency of Italy and provides guidance to countries in designing green recovery packages, aligning recovery packages with climate objectives, establishing effective evaluation and monitoring frameworks, and strengthening innovation and R&D.

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  • 22-July-2021

    English, PDF, 2,155kb

    G20 report: Towards a more resource-efficient and circular economy - The role of the G20

    This Policy Guidance, prepared by the OECD at the request of the Italian G20 Presidency is intended for G20 Leaders, as well as Economic, Finance and Environment Ministries. Based on insights from across the G20 membership, this report presents possible elements of a common G20 policy vision on resource efficiency and the circular economy for different levels of government.

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  • 22-July-2021

    English

    Accessing and Using Green Finance in the Kyrgyz Republic - Evidence from a Household Survey

    This report presents findings from a survey on green finance conducted among 1 000 households in the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan) in 2019. Although green finance is an emerging trend, knowledge about the appetite for green financial products and services in Kyrgyzstan is almost inexistent. The OECD prepared the household survey to close this gap in evidence. The research identified needs and demand from existing and potential clients of Kyrgyz financial institutions for financial instruments, including those that promote sustainable development. This will help commercial banks, policy makers and central bankers design more targeted interventions to increase access to and use of financial products and services, including green finance, in Kyrgyzstan.
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