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  • 8-March-2022

    English

    CO2 Emissions from air transport - A near-real-time global database for policy analysis

    By moving goods and people over large distances, air transport facilitates international trade and tourism and thus contributes to economic growth and job creation. At the same time, it also comes with environmental challenges, largely related to air emissions and their impact on global warming. Air transport has been disproportionately negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with associated reductions in air emissions. However, recent projections show that, in the absence of accelerated technological developments and more ambitious policy measures, aviation-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will grow again at a rapid pace after the pandemic. This paper describes a new OECD database providing near-real-time and global information on aviation-related CO2 emissions, with allocations across countries following either the territory or the residence principle. This database provides a public good for both statistical measurement and environmental policy analysis. On the statistical front, it will facilitate the compilation of global Air Emission Accounts according to the System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA), bring granular and timely information on a significant source of CO2 emissions, and allow tracking their evolution during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The comparison with official statistics that are available with a significant delay and at lower frequency demonstrates the accuracy of the OECD estimates. On the environmental policy front, it is expected that the OECD database will help monitor the impact of technological developments and policy measures to curb aviation-related CO2 emissions in the future.
  • 4-March-2022

    English

    Financing a Water Secure Future

    This report presents a summary of the key challenges and opportunities related to financing that contributes to water security and sustainable growth distilling insights from the Roundtable on Financing Water and related analyses. It covers a broad range of water-related investments, including water and sanitation services, water resources management, agricultural water and managing water-related risks ('too much', 'too little' and 'too polluted'). It summarises findings from analysis of investments needs and financing capacities, trends in development finance for water and explores how water risks generate financial impacts for corporates. The report highlights options to address the financing challenge by strengthening the enabling environment for investment, making the best use of existing sources of finance, strategic investment planning and mobilising additional finance via a range of financing approaches. Finally, the report sets out a vision for future OECD work on financing water and for the Roundtable on Financing Water.
  • 4-March-2022

    English

    The cost of preventing ocean plastic pollution

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of preventing land-based plastic leakage into the ocean, covering 38 OECD member countries and 10 selected major plastic waste emitters in Asia and Africa. The study estimates capital costs at EUR 54 billion in the Moderate Ambition scenario and EUR 74 billion in the High Ambition scenario. The annualised per-capita costs range between EUR 0.2 to 6.5 in the Moderate Ambition scenario and from EUR 0.8 to 6.5 in the High Ambition scenario. These cost estimates are much lower than UNEP and ISWA estimates of the cost of inaction of inadequate waste management, roughly USD 9 to 45 per capita. Differences in estimated costs are found to depend on countries’ waste policy stringency and waste management infrastructure. This paper contributes to OECD work in support of a sustainable ocean economy and the Global Plastics Outlook report.
  • 28-February-2022

    English

    Constitutions in OECD Countries: A Comparative Study - Background Report in the Context of Chile’s Constitutional Process

    Chile has embarked on an ambitious path towards a new constitution. For all countries, drafting a new constitution or amending an existing one is a stimulating challenge, but also a demanding process from both a political and technical standpoint. This report presents the results of a benchmarking exercise conducted by the OECD of possible constitutional provisions, reflecting the experiences of OECD member countries. The components covered include economic and social rights, the system of government, multi-level governance, constitutional review, fiscal governance and the role and functioning of central banks.
  • 25-February-2022

    English

    Global warming, pollution and cognitive developments - The effects of high pollution and temperature levels on cognitive ability throughout the life course

    Global warming and air pollution threaten human health, economic prosperity and human capital accumulation. The current review presents empirical findings on the effect of adverse environmental conditions on cognition, with a focus on pollution and high temperatures. The review takes a life-course perspective and quantifies both the direct and indirect effects of cumulative and transitory exposure to adverse conditions on cognition starting in-utero all the way to exposure in old age. The review makes clear that exposure to pollutants and high temperatures has economically meaningful costs for both individuals and societies, stemming from lower human capital accumulation. Furthermore, the evidence presented indicates that adverse environmental conditions have large distributional consequences, leading to widening disparities in educational opportunities both across countries and across socio-economic groups within-countries. The review discusses the mechanisms underpinning these effects and explores policies that have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of adverse conditions on cognition.
  • 23-February-2022

    English

    Innovation and industrial policies for green hydrogen

    This paper examines the current development of hydrogen technology in the manufacturing sector and the industrial policies enacted to support it across countries. In addition to continued R&D efforts, governments can already lay the ground for the deployment of green hydrogen by implementing five types of policies: 1) supporting R&D and demonstration for green hydrogen to bring down the cost of electrolysers and make them competitive; 2) increasing the supply of renewable electricity; 3) reducing the cost gap between green hydrogen and brown technologies through a comprehensive policy package, such as carbon pricing and the phasing out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies; 4) reducing uncertainty, for instance by promoting international standardisation, hydrogen infrastructure, and sound regulatory standards; and 5) considering blue hydrogen as a short-term option to facilitate the transition to green hydrogen.
  • 22-February-2022

    English

    Global Plastics Outlook - Economic Drivers, Environmental Impacts and Policy Options

    While plastics are extremely useful materials for modern society, plastics production and waste generation continue to increase with worsening environmental impacts despite international, national and local policy responses, as well as industry commitments. The urgent need to make the lifecycle of plastics more circular calls for an expansion of national policies and improved international co-operation to mitigate environmental impacts all along the value chain. The first of two reports, this Outlook intends to inform and support policy efforts to combat plastic leakage. The report quantifies the current production, use, disposal and key environmental impacts throughout the entire plastics lifecycle and identifies opportunities for reducing the negative externalities. It also investigates how plastics use and waste have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic across sectors and regions. The Outlook identifies four key levers for bending the plastics curve: stronger support for recycled (secondary) plastics markets; policies to boost technological innovation in plastics; more ambitious domestic policy measures; and greater international co-operation.
  • 22-February-2022

    English

    Plastic pollution is growing relentlessly as waste management and recycling fall short, says OECD

    The world is producing twice as much plastic waste as two decades ago, with the bulk of it ending up in landfill, incinerated or leaking into the environment, and only 9% successfully recycled, according to a new OECD report.

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  • 18-February-2022

    English

    Towards Green Transformation of the Republic of Moldova: State of Play in 2021

    This report presents a snapshot of the progress towards the green economy made in the Republic of Moldova over 2015-20, based on green growth indicators. The new released report will help prepare the new national program on the green economy for 2022-27 and Environmental Strategy 2030.

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  • 15-February-2022

    English

    The effect of climate policy on innovation and economic performance along the supply chain - A firm- and sector-level analysis

    The paper empirically assesses the effect of climate policy stringency on innovation and economic performance, both directly on regulated sectors and indirectly through supply chain relationships. The analysis is based on a combination of firm- and sector-level data, covering 19 countries and the period from 1990 to 2015. The paper shows that climate policies are effective at inducing innovation in low-carbon technologies in directly regulated sectors. It does not find evidence that climate policies induce significant innovation along the supply chain. In addition, there is no evidence that climate policies – through the channel of clean innovation – either harm or improve the economic performance of regulated firms. This supports the evidence that past climate policies have not been major burdens on firms’ competitiveness, and that clean innovation may enable firms to compensate for the potential costs implied by new environmental regulations.
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