Environment in emerging and transition economies

Policy Instruments for Greener Economies



The EAP Task Force’s work at the interface of sound economics, environmental management and governance aims at helping Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries to identify incentives and instruments for improved environmental policy design and implementation, and to integrate the environment into the broader process of economic and social development.

The EAP Task Force work on environmental policy instruments has followed the OECD approach of policy packages – coherent mixes of tools to set and ensure compliance with environmental requirements that exploit synergies for achieving environmental policy objectives  in a cost-effective manner and avoid policy conflicts.


Over the last 10 years, the Task Force has undertaken extensive regional and country-specific work on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of environmental permitting systems in EECCA. Guidance documents, training and demonstration projects promoted cross-media integration of environmental requirements and their diversification based on environmental impact of regulated facilities.

The EAP Task Force has also been engaged in supporting the reform of economic instruments of environmental protection in the EECCA region. Its activities in this area have focused on streamlining the pollution charge systems in EECCA to improve their incentive function, reforming monetary penalties for environmental offences and re-orienting environmental liability regimes toward remediation of damage to natural resources.


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