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  • 28-May-2021

    English

    OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels: Country Notes

    This new web format for Country Notes on Fossil Fuel Support provides interactive on-line access to the latest data from the OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels by country – identifying and estimating the value of support arising from policies that encourage the production or consumption of fossil fuels. The web version allows users to download, share and play with the data. Interactive graphics enable data visualisation, in national currency, by beneficiary and by energy product. These Country Notes provide, for each of the 50 economies covered in the Inventory, a snapshot of energy market structure, the current state of energy prices and taxes, and recent developments and trends in fossil fuel support. Data and country notes for the EU Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries have been collected and prepared as part of the GREEN Action Task Force.
  • 27-May-2021

    English

    EU Green Week: Towards Zero Pollution in the Eastern Partnership countries

    Within the EU Green Week, EU4Environment is organising a virtual event “Towards Zero Pollution in the Eastern Partnership countries”. This regional conference will review progress in addressing environmental challenges in the region, demonstrate the success stories and best practices to decrease pollution, and discuss the ways how to address remaining challenges, including those stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • 21-May-2021

    English

    Biodiversity, natural capital and the economy - A policy guide for finance, economic and environment ministers

    Nature underpins all economic activities and human well-being. It is the world’s most important asset. Yet humanity is destroying biodiversity at an unprecedented rate, posing significant but often overlooked risks to the economy, the financial sector and the well-being of current and future generations. This report provides the latest findings and policy guidance for G7 and other countries in four key areas: measuring and mainstreaming biodiversity; aligning budgetary and fiscal policy with biodiversity; embedding biodiversity in the financial sector; and improving biodiversity outcomes linked to international trade. The report shows how Finance, Economic and Environment Ministries can drive the transformative changes required to halt and reverse the loss of biodiversity. This Policy Paper was prepared as an input document for the United Kingdom Presidency of the G7 in 2021.
  • 21-May-2021

    English

    Towards G7 action to combat ghost fishing gear - A background report prepared for the 2021 G7 Presidency of the United Kingdom

    This report provides in-depth analysis of the drivers, impacts and best practices to address ghost fishing gear. It places the issues of abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear within the larger context of marine plastic pollution. Ghost gear is particularly harmful because it negatively affects fisheries, non-target species (e.g. entanglement of wildlife), habitats, navigational safety, and coastal tourism. As a significant source of marine pollution, ghost fishing gear contributes to environmental and health risks of plastic pollution. The report identifies good practices and policies to prevent gear loss, reduce its impacts, and to recover lost gear. It reviews current policy efforts at the international level and in G7 countries and recommends a comprehensive policy response through international co-operation and circular economy approaches.
  • 21-May-2021

    English

    Gender and the Environment - Building Evidence and Policies to Achieve the SDGs

    Gender equality and environmental goals are mutually reinforcing, with slow progress on environmental actions affecting the achievement of gender equality, and vice versa. Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires targeted and coherent actions. However, complementarities and trade-offs between gender equality and environmental sustainability are scarcely documented within the SDG framework. Based on the SDG framework, this report provides an overview of the gender-environment nexus, looking into data and evidence gaps, economic and well-being benefits, and governance and justice aspects. It examines nine environment-related SDGs (2, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 and 15) through a gender-environment lens, using available data, case studies, surveys and other evidence. It shows that women around the world are disproportionately affected by climate change, deforestation, land degradation, desertification, growing water scarcity and inadequate sanitation, with gender inequalities further exacerbated by COVID-19. The report concludes that gender-responsiveness in areas such as land, water, energy and transport management, amongst others, would allow for more sustainable and inclusive economic development, and increased well-being for all. Recognising the multiple dimensions of and interactions between gender equality and the environment, it proposes an integrated policy framework, taking into account both inclusive growth and environmental considerations at local, national and international levels.
  • 21-May-2021

    English

    The long-term implications of the COVID-19 pandemic and recovery measures on environmental pressures - A quantitative exploration

    This paper analyses the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated government responses on the environment. It uses large-scale modelling to investigate the impact of sectoral and regional shocks to the economy until 2040. These detailed economic impacts are linked to a range of environmental pressures, including greenhouse gas emissions, emissions of air pollutants, the use of raw materials and land use change. The short-term reductions in environmental pressures are significant: in 2020, energy-related greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions dropped by around 7%. Environmental pressures related to agriculture observed a smaller drop in 2020. The reduction in the use of non-metallic minerals, including construction materials, reached double digits. From 2021, emissions are projected to increase again, gradually getting closer to the pre-COVID baseline projection levels as growth rates recover fully. But there is a long-term – potentially permanent – downward impact on the levels of environmental pressures of 1‑3%.
  • 17-May-2021

    English

    Assessing the Economic Impacts of Environmental Policies - Evidence from a Decade of OECD Research

    Over the past decades, governments have gradually adopted more rigorous environmental policies to tackle challenges associated with pressing environmental issues, such as climate change. The ambition of these policies is, however, often tempered by their perceived negative effects on the economy. The empirical evidence in this volume – covering a decade of OECD analysis – shows that environmental policies have had relatively small effects on economic outcomes such as employment, investment, trade and productivity. At the same time, they have been effective at reducing emissions from industry. The policies can however generate winners and losers across firms, industries and regions: while the least productive firms from high-polluting sectors are adversely affected, more productive firms and low-pollution sectors benefit. Environmental policies can be designed and combined with other policies to compensate workers and industries that may lose and to emphasise their positive impacts.
  • 17-May-2021

    English

    Green Talks LIVE

    These free webinars are open to the general public and participants are welcome to pose questions during the Q&A segment. Watch the replay of the recent webinar on the Economic Impacts of Environmental Policies presented by OECD Chief Economist Laurence Boone on 17 May 2021.

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  • 10-May-2021

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Ireland 2021

    Ireland’s progress in delinking the economy from environmental pressures has been uneven in the last decade. Greenhouse gas emissions, waste generation and nutrient pollution rose with strong economic growth between the mid-2010s and the inception of the COVID‑19 pandemic. The country’s dispersed settlement pattern implies that roads are the dominant transport mode. Climate, circular economy and biodiversity policies have gained renewed impetus, with various ambitious policy initiatives and large public investment plans. These need to be swiftly implemented to alleviate the growing pressures from intensification of agricultural practices, demographic development, urban sprawl and road traffic. Encouraging businesses and households to take action is key. This requires providing consistent price signals for the use of energy and natural resources and for better managing travel demand, while taking into account affordability, employment impact and regional disparities. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Ireland. It evaluates progress towards green growth and sustainable development, with a special chapter focusing on sustainable mobility and freight.
  • 4-May-2021

    English

    Exploring the impact of shared mobility services on CO2

    Policy action to avoid the impending societal costs of climate change is particularly warranted in transport sector, which is responsible for 30% of greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries. To design appropriate interventions in this sector, policy makers should account for the recent emergence of shared mobility services in urban areas and their potential advantages in terms of emissions mitigation. This study estimates the impact that the widespread uptake of shared mobility services could have on the carbon footprint of urban transport. To this end, it simulates the share of each transport mode and aggregate emissions from passenger transport in 247 cities across 29 OECD countries between 2015 and 2050. The analysis indicates that they have the potential to eliminate, on average, 6.3% of urban passenger transport emissions by the end of this period.
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