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  • 14-April-2021

    English

    Adapting to a changing climate in the management of coastal zones

    This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the recent and projected socio-economic development of coastal areas. It reviews the environmental pressures exerted by human activities on coastal areas, as well as the impacts of climate change that exacerbate existing challenges. The paper calls for a co-ordinated and well-adapted policy response to address these challenges.
  • 14-April-2021

    English

    Assessment of the air pollution tax and emission concentration limits in the Czech Republic

    This paper assesses the design of the air pollution tax in conjunction with a stringency analysis of the emission concentration limits in the Czech Republic. The analysis draws upon a detailed database containing environmental reporting by industrial stationary sources. The assessment of the emission concentration limits focuses on analysing the shift of the statutory limits between 2013 and 2017 and the corresponding real-life measured concentration on individual source basis. It provides an assessment of stringency of the air protection instrument and also of the vintage differentiation applied in the form of transitional schemes. The stringency analysis of the emission concentration limits stringency is related to the air pollution tax relief provision.
  • 1-April-2021

    English

    The economic and environmental benefits from international co-ordination on carbon pricing - Insights from economic modelling studies

    This paper assesses quantitative estimates based on economic modelling studies of the economic and environmental benefits from different forms of international co-ordination on carbon pricing. Forms of international co-ordination include: harmonising carbon prices (e.g. through linking carbon markets), extending the coverage of pricing schemes, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, developing international sectoral agreements, and establishing co-ordination mechanisms to mitigate carbon leakage. All forms of international co-operation on carbon pricing can deliver benefits, both economic (e.g. lower mitigation costs) and/or environmental (e.g. reducing GHG emissions and carbon leakage). Benefits tend to be higher with broader participation of countries, broader coverage of emissions and sectors and more ambitious policy goals. Most, but not all, countries gain economic benefits from international co-operation, and these benefits vary significantly across countries and regions. Complementary measures outside co-operation on carbon pricing (e.g. technology transfers) could ensure that co-operation provides economic benefits for all countries.
  • 31-March-2021

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Belgium 2021

    Belgium has made progress in decoupling several environmental pressures from economic growth, in improving wastewater treatment and in expanding protected areas. Regions have achieved high levels of recovery and recycling, and have pioneered circular economy policies. However, further efforts are needed to progress towards carbon neutrality, reduce air and water pollution, reverse biodiversity loss and consolidate results of circular economy initiatives. Strengthening co‑ordination between the federal government and the regions, and among the regions, as well as enhancing policy coherence will be key factors of progress. As the COVID-19 emergency passes, recovery efforts should focus on putting the country back on track to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. Investing in low-carbon and natural infrastructure, promoting circular economy, strengthening carbon prices and phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies should be priorities. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Belgium. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on biodiversity and waste, materials management and the circular economy.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2021

    This report draws on more than 1 300 government budgetary transfers and tax expenditures providing preferential treatment for the production and consumption of fossil fuels as documented in the 2020 OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels to track progress in reform of support. It sets out principal trends across 50 OECD, G20 and European Union (EU) Eastern Partnership (EaP) economies, including as resulting from the COVID-19 crisis and novel sectoral decomposition of Inventory data. It reports on developments in tracking and monitoring fossil fuel support in the context of the G20 and the UN Sustainable Development Goals, and with respect to enhancing the interpretation of tax expenditure data. Finally, the report offers a sequential framework to assist governments assess and address the effects of fossil-fuel support measures and their reform, given ongoing challenges in gaining traction for reform.
  • 29-March-2021

    English

    Occupational Biomonitoring

    Occupational Biomonitoring allows to measure internal exposure or effect. It is especially efficient in assessing exposures from multiple routes, i.e. inhalation, oral and dermal exposure pathways. This project is focused on improving methods for deriving health based human biomarker values (BMGV, BLV, DNELbiomarker).

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  • 29-March-2021

    English

    Monitoring Ukraine’s Progress towards Green Economy using Green Growth Indicators

    Within EU4Environment, the kick-off meeting on “Monitoring Ukraine’s Progress towards Green Economy using Green Growth Indicators” launched the work to update the pilot set of the OECD-based green growth indicators in the country. This work will help raise awareness, measure progress and identify opportunities and risks in implementing the National Environmental Policy Strategy until 2030.

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  • 29-March-2021

    English

    Measuring the alignment of real economy investments with climate mitigation objectives - The United Kingdom’s buildings sector

    This paper explores data and methods to assess the alignment or misalignment with climate mitigation objectives of investments in the construction and refurbishment of residential and non-residential buildings. It takes the United Kingdom (UK) as a case study, where such investments reached GBP 162 billion (EUR 184 billion) in 2019 or 39% of UK gross fixed capital formation. The analysis trials different reference points that lead to varying results and each currently come with limitations in terms of coverage or granularity. Sector-level greenhouse gas (GHG) trajectories indicate that, in aggregate, investments in UK buildings have been insufficient, delayed or not aligned enough with caps set by UK Carbon Budgets, but such trajectories currently lack disaggregation for a more granular and insightful matching with investment data. Energy performance certificates (EPCs) allow for asset-level analyses: for instance, 79% of 2010-2019 investments in new built residential were in relatively energy efficient buildings but only 1% were consistent with more demanding recommendations towards the UK’s objective of reaching net-zero GHG in 2050. The coverage and reliability of EPCs, however, needs to be improved for older buildings, whose deep retrofitting is a major financing challenge. Applying Climate Bonds Initiative criteria for low-carbon buildings identifies investments eligible for green bond financing, but such criteria have partial sectoral coverage and are based on currently most efficient buildings within the existing stock, which makes them relatively easy to meet for investments in new built. Producing more complete and policy relevant assessments of aligned and misaligned investments at national and sectoral levels requires the availability of and access to comparable and granular data on decarbonisation targets and pathways consistent with the Paris Agreement temperature goals, GHG performance of assets, corporate and household investments, as well as underlying sources of financing.
  • 26-March-2021

    English

    Financing water security for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific

    The Asia Water Development Outlook – a flagship publication by the Asian Development Bank - monitors progress in water security in the Asia Pacific region. For the first time, the 2020 edition documents financing flows that contribute to – or that are needed to enhance – water security in the region. Working in close collaboration with the Asian Development Bank and partners, the OECD endeavoured to characterise funding needs and financing flows for water security in the region. The approach and methodology derive from a similar endeavour covering the European region, but were adjusted to reflect the distinctive features of the region, in terms of the state of play, policy, and data availability. This paper compiles available data and analyses, and derives policy messages, for countries in the region and their partners (including development finance institutions). It characterises an enabling environment that can facilitate and expedite financing for water security commensurate with the challenges and distinctive opportunities in the region.
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