Climate change

Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG) reports by year


The OECD and the IEA provide secretariat support to the CCXG and prepare analytical papers on issues relevant to the on-going climate change negotiations. Over 100 papers have been prepared for the group since 1993. Please note that these papers are intended to inform national policy-makers and other stakeholders; they do not necessarily represent the views of the OECD or the IEA, nor do they intend to prejudge the views of countries participating in the CCXG.

Papers published in 2009 onwards constitute the OECD/IEA Climate Change Expert Group Paper Series


Jeudy-Hugo, S. and S. Errendal, Towards an impactful Mitigation Work Programme under the UNFCCC

Jeudy-Hugo, S. and L. Charles, Towards a successful outcome of the first global stocktake of the Paris Agreement

Ellis, J., Lo Re, L., S. Errendal, Making the Mitigation Work Programme fit for purpose: Options for forms, focus and information that would lead to successful implementation


Jeudy-Hugo, S., Errendal, S. and Kotani, I., Adaptation in the global stocktake: options to deliver on its mandate

Lo Re, L., Ellis, J. and Grenier, S., The birth of an ITMO: authorisation under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement

Ellis, J., Lo Re L. and De Lorenzo, F., How national governments can facilitate increased mitigation action from non-Party Stakeholders: Insights from urban renewable electricity and REDD+

Jeudy-Hugo, S. and Charles L., Translating outputs to outcomes under the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement



Falduto C., Ellis J. and Simeonova K., Understanding reporting and review under Articles 6 and 13 of the Paris Agreement 

Jeudy-Hugo S., Lo Re L. and Falduto C., Understanding countries’ net-zero emissions targets

Lo Re, L. and Ellis J., Operationalising the Article 6.4 mechanism: options and implications of CDM activity transition and new activity registration

Falduto, C. and Wartmann, S., Towards common GHG inventory reporting tables for Biennial Transparency Reports: Experiences with tools for generating and using reporting tables under the UNFCCC



Buckle, S., Ellis, J., Aguilar Jaber, A., Rocha, M., Anderson, B. and P. Bjersér, Addressing the COVID-19 and climate crises: potential economic recovery pathways and their implications for climate change mitigation, NDCs and broader socio-economic goals

Fadulto, C., Wartmann, S. and M. Rocha, Reporting national GHG inventories through Common Reporting Tables (CRTs) - An assessment of CRT reporting options through worked examples

Rocha, M. and J. Ellis, Reporting progress towards Nationally Determined Contributions: exploring possible common tabular formats for the structured summary

Falduto, C. and M. Rocha,  Aligning short-term climate action with long-term climate goals - Opportunities and options for enhancing alignment between NDCs and long-term strategies



Rocha, M. and C. Falduto, Key questions guiding the process of setting up long-term low-emission development strategies

Lo Re, L., Ellis, J., Vaidyula, M. and A. Prag, Designing the Article 6.4 mechanism: assessing selected baseline approaches and their implications

Rocha, M., Reporting Tables – Potential areas of work under SBSTA and options – Part I – GHG inventories and tracking progress towards NDCs

Falduto, C. and J. Ellis, Reporting Tables – Potential areas of work under SBSTA and options – Part II – Financial support provided, mobilised and received

Lo Re, L. and M. Vaidyula, Markets negotiations under the Paris Agreement: a technical analysis of two unresolved issues



Ellis J., S. Wartmann, S. Moarif and M. Rocha, Operationalising selected reporting and flexibility provisions in the Paris Agreement

Vaidyula M. and M. Rocha, Tracking progress towards NDCs and relevant linkages between Articles 4.6 and 13 of the Paris Agreement

Garrett J. and S. Moarif, Reporting on capacity-building and technology support under the Paris Agreement: Issues and options for guidance

Vaidyula M. and C. Hood, Accounting for baseline targets in NDCs: Issues and options for guidance

Vaidyula M., Common time frames: Summary of discussions - 2018 March Climate Change Expert Group Global Forum



Vaidyula M. and J. Ellis, 2018 facilitative dialogue: Identifying options for outputs and outcomes, and key questions for modalities

Hood H. and C. Soo, Accounting for mitigation targets in Nationally determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement

Vallejo L., S. Moarif and A. Halimanjaya, Enhancing mitigation and finance reporting

Moarif S., Information needed to facilitate the clarity, the transparency and understanding of mitigation contribution

Ellis J. and M. Vaidyula, Information needs for the 2018 facilitative dialogue: issues and options

Vallejo L., Insights from national adaptation monitoring and evaluation systems



Ellis J. and S. Moarif, Enhancing transparency of climate finance under the Paris Agreement: lessons from experience

Briner G. and S. Moarif, Enhancing transparency of climate change mitigation under the Paris Agreement: lessons from experience

Briner G. and S. Moarif, Possible structure of mitigation-related modalities, procedures and guidelines for the enhanced transparency framework

Briner G. and S. Moarif, Unpacking Provisions Related to Transparency of Mitigation and Support in the Paris Agreement

Kato T. and J. Ellis, Communicating Progress in National and Global Adaptation to Climate Change



Ellis J. and S. Moarif, Identifying and Addressing Gaps in the UNFCCC Reporting Framework

Ellis J., S. Moarif, Y. Nobuoka, M. Pellegrino and J. Helgeson, Assessing Options to Increase Climate Support

Helgeson, J. and J. Ellis, The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Enhancing Adaptation to Climate Change

Hood, C., L. Adkins and E. Levina, Overview of INDCs Submitted by 31 August 2015

Moarif, S., Establishing Cycles for Nationally Determined Mitigation Contributions or Commitments

Moarif, S., Strategic Review: Implications of Proposals to Date for Mitigation Contributions

Nobuoka, Y., J. Ellis and S. Pyndt Andersen, Encouraging Increased Climate Action by Non-Party Stakeholders


Briner, G. and S. Konrad, Planting the Foundations of a Post-2020 Land Sector Reporting and Accounting Framework

Briner, G., T. Kato and T. Hattori, Built to Last: Designing a Flexible and Durable 2015 Climate Change Agreement

Briner, G., T. Kato, S. Konrad and C. Hood, Taking Stock of the UNFCCC Process and its Inter-linkages

Hood, C. and G. Briner, Energy Sector Transformation: Issues and Options for the UNFCCC Negotiations

Hood C., G. Briner and M. Rocha, GHG or not GHG: Accounting for diverse mitigation contributions in the post-2020 climate framework

Kato, T., J. Ellis and C. Clapp, The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Mobilising Climate Finance

Kato, T., J. Ellis, P. Pauw and R. Caruso, Scaling up and replicating effective climate finance interventions


Briner, G. and A. Prag, Establishing and Understanding Post-2020 Climate Change Mitigation Commitments

Caruso, R. and J. Ellis, Comparing Definitions and Methods to Estimate Mobilised Climate Finance

Ellis, J., R. Caruso and S. Ockenden, Exploring Climate Finance Effectiveness

Prag, A., C. Hood and P. Martins Barata, Made to Measure: Options for Emissions Accounting under the UNFCCC


Clapp, C. and Prag, A., Projecting Emissions Baselines for National Climate Policy: Options for Guidance to Improve Transparency

Clapp, C., J. Ellis, J. Benn and J. Corfee-Morlot, Tracking Climate Finance: What and How?

Prag, A., G. Briner and C. Hood, Making Markets: Unpacking Design and Governance of Carbon Market Mechanisms

Prag, A. and G. Briner, Crossing the Threshold: Ambitious Baselines for the UNFCCC New Market-based Mechanism


Buchner, B., J. Brown and J. Corfee-Morlot, Monitoring and Tracking Long-Term Finance to Support Climate Action

Ellis, J., G. Briner, Y. Dagnet and N. Campbell, Design Options for International Assessment and Review (IAR) and International Consultations and Analysis (ICA)

Ellis, J., G. Briner, S. Moarif and B. Buchner, Frequent and Flexible: Options for Reporting Guidelines for Biennial Reports

Prag, A., C. Hood, A. Aasrud and G. Briner, Tracking and Trading: Expanding on Options for International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting after 2012

Prag, A., A. Aasrud and C. Hood, Keeping Track: Options to Develop International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting after 2012


Aasrud, A., R. Baron and K. Karousakis, Market Readiness: Building Blocks for Market Approaches

Clapp, C., G. Briner and K. Karousakis, Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons

Ellis, J., S. Moarif, G. Briner, B. Buchner and E. Massey, Options to Revise Reporting Guidelines for Annex I and non-Annex I National Communications

Ellis, J., S. Moarif and G. Briner (2010), Core Elements of National Reports


Aasrud, A., R. Baron, B. Buchner and K. McCall, Sectoral Market Mechanisms – Issues for Negotiation and Domestic Implementation

Baron, R., B. Buchner and J. Ellis, Sectoral Approaches and the Carbon Market

Clapp, C., K. Karousakis, B. Buchner and J. Chateau, National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models

Corfee-Morlot, J., B. Guay and K. M. Larsen, Financing Climate Change Mitigation: Towards a Framework for Measurement, Reporting and Verification

Ellis, J., S. Moarif and J. A. Kim, Reporting and Recording Post-2012 GHG Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support

Ellis, J. and S. Moarif, GHG Mitigation Actions: MRV Issues and Options

Kim, J. A., J. Corfee-Morlot and P. T’Serclaes, Linking Mitigation Actions in Developing Countries with Mitigation Support: A Conceptual Framework

Kim, J. A., J. Ellis and S. Moarif, Matching Mitigation Actions with Support: Key Issues for Channelling International Public Finance


Baron, R., I. Barnsley and J. Ellis,

Ellis, J. and K. Larsen, Measurement, Reporting and Verification of Mitigation Actions and Commitments

Karousakis, K., B. Guay and C. Philibert,


Buchner, B., Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

Ellis, J., R. Baron and B. Buchner, SD-PAMs: What, Where, When and How?

Ellis, J. and S. Kamel,

Karousakis, K. and J. Corfee-Morlot,

Karousakis K.,

Levina, E.,

Levina, E., J. E. Jacob, L. E. Ramos and I. Ortiz,

Philibert, C., J. Ellis and J. Podkanski,

Philibert, C.,

Reinaud, J. and C. Philibert,


Baron, R., Sectoral Approaches to GHG Mitigation: Scenarios for Integration

Baron, R. and J. Ellis, Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Institutional and Operational Issues

Ellis, J. and D. Tirpak, Linking GHG Emission Trading Schemes and Markets

Ellis, J. and K. Karousakis, The Developing CDM Market: May 2006 Update

Ellis, J., Issues Related to a Programme of Activities under the CDM

Karousakis, K., Initial Review of Policies and Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation

Karousakis, K., Joint Implementation: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges

Lefèvre, N., P. de T'Serclaes and P. Waide, Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

Levina, E., Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water Sector, Part II: non-Annex I Countries – Lessons Learned from Mexico, India, Argentina and Zimbabwe

Levina, E. and H. Adams, Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water Sector, Part I: Annex I Countries

Levina, E. and D. Tirpak, Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Terms

Philibert, C., Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Solar Thermal Technologies


Bosi, M. and J. Ellis, Exploring Options for "Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms

Ellis, J. and R. Baron, Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms: An Initial Assessment of Electricity and Aluminium

Ellis, J. and E. Levina, The Developing CDM Market

Guéret, T., International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 3: Appliance Energy Efficiency

Justus, D. and C. Philibert, International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation: Synthesis Report

Justus, D., International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 5: Wind Power Integration into Electricity Systems

Philibert, C., Climate Mitigation: Integrating Approaches for Future International Co-operation

Philibert, C., New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

Philibert, C., Approaches for Future International Co-operation

Philibert, C. and J. Podkanski, International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 4: Clean Coal Technologies

Tirpak, D and M. Ward, The Adaptation Landscape

Willems, S., National Approaches to Adaptation: Some Lessons Learnt from Recent OECD and UNFCCC workshops


Blyth, W. and M. Bosi, Linking non-EU Domestic Emissions Trading Schemes with the EU Emissions Trading Schemes

Bygrave, S. and M. Bosi, Linking Project-based Mechanisms with Domestic Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Schemes

Ellis, J. and F. Gagnon-Lebrun, The CDM Portfolio: Update Focusing on Non-electricity Projects

Ellis, J., J. Corfee-Morlot and H. Winkler, Taking Stock of Progress under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Gagnon-Lebrun, F., International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 2: Co-operation in Agriculture - R&D on High-yielding Crop Varieties

Philibert, C., International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 1: Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

Philibert, C. and J. Reinaud, Emissions Trading: Taking Stock and Looking Forward

Philibert, C., International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation

Willems, S., Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions: Summary Paper


Blyth, W. and R. Baron, Green Investment Schemes: Options and Issues

Bygrave, S. and J. Ellis, Policies to Reduce GHG Emissions in Industry - Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned: Workshop Report

Ellis. J., Evaluating Experience with Electricity-generating GHG Mitigation Projects

Ellis, J., Forestry Projects: Lessons Learned and Implications for CDM Modalities

Herold, A., Current Status of National Inventory Preparation in Annex I and non-Annex I Parties

Philibert, C., Technology Innovation, Development and Diffusion

Philibert, C., J. Pershing, S. Willems and J. Corfee-Morlot, Evolution of Mitigation Commitments: Some Key Issues

Willems, S. and K. Baumert, Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions


Baron, R. and S. Bygrave, Towards International Emissions Trading: Design Implications for Linkages

Bosi, M. and A. Laurence, Road-Testing Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Projects in the Electric Power Sector

Ellis, J., Developing Guidance on Monitoring and Project Boundaries for GHG Projects

Kartha, S. and M. Lazarus, Practical Baseline Recommendations for GHG Mitigation Projects in the Electric Power Sector

Willems, S., J. Ellis, R. Dornau, F. Mullins and E. Levina, National Systems for Flexible Mechanisms: Implementation Issues in Countries with Economies in Transition, Workshop Report

Willems, S. and J. Pershing, Climate-relevant Policy Assessment: Recent Work in the OECD, IEA, NEA and ECMT


Baron, R., The Commitment Period Reserve

Bode, J. W., J. de Beer, K. Blok and J. Ellis, Potential and Implications for Multi-Project Emission Baselines: Iron and Steel Case Study

Bosi, M., Fast-tracking Small CDM Projects: Implications for the Electricity Sector

Bosi, M., An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Electricity Generation Case Study

Ellis, J., Forestry Projects: Permanence, Credit Accounting and Lifetime

Ellis, J., J. Pershing and F. Mullins (2001), Transition Country Perspectives on the Kyoto Protocol, Workshop Report and Questionnaire Results

Ellis, J., An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Cement Case Study

McGlynn, G., P. Crist, L. Fulton and M. Crass, Good Practice Greenhouse Abatement Policies: Transport

Salon, D., An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Transport Case Study

Violette, D., C. Mudd and M. Keneipp, An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Energy Efficiency Case Study

Willems, S., Framework for Baseline Guidelines

Willems, S., R. Baron, J. Corfee-Morlot, J. Ellis, M. Bosi, F. Mullins and J. Werksman, Kyoto Mechanisms, Monitoring and Compliance, from Kyoto to The Hague


Baron, R., Market Access Issues in International GHG Emissions Trading

Baron, R., An Assessment of Liability Rules for International GHG Emissions Trading

Baron, R., Market Power and Market Access in International GHG Emissions Trading

Ellis, J. and M. Bosi, Options for Project Emission Baselines

Willems, S., Key Features of Domestic Monitoring Systems under the Kyoto Protocol



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