Annex I Expert Group Side Event at COP12 Nairobi:
Adaptation, Technology and Mechanisms: Recent Work from the
Annex I Expert Group on the UNFCCC
This side event was held at the COP12 Nairobi on Monday 13 November at 13:15. Seven new studies, produced under the auspices of the Annex I Expert Group, were presented.
· Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water sector, Part II: Non-Annex I Countries
- Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Compact Fluorescent Lamps
- Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Solar Thermal Technologies
- Initial Review of Policies and Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation
- Sectoral Approaches to GHG Mitigation: Scenarios for Integration
- Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets
- Joint Implementation: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges
All reports aredownloaded from the web at: www.oecd.org/env/cc/aixg.
Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water sector, Part II: Non-Annex I Countries by Ellina Levina (OECD). All countries have complex water policy frameworks that reflect historical precedents and their local circumstances. This paper examines domestic policy frameworks in the water sector in four developing countries (Argentina, India, Mexico, and Zimbabwe) and identifies how adaptation to climate change can be integrated into these frameworks. The paper draws lessons fromthese countries about the roles that national policy frameworks can play in adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Where possible, the study compares the findings of this paper with the conclusions of similar assessment of four Annex I countries. The key elements of the analysis in both cases were the same and included legislation, institutional structures, water management tools and policies, and information availability and use.
BARRIERS TO TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION:
The Case of Compact Fluorescent Lamps by Nicolas Lefèvre-Marton, Philippine de T’Serclaes, Paul Waide (IEA): Artificial light production accounts for 8.9% of total global primary consumption and represents approximately 8% of world CO2 emissions. Improving the efficacy of lighting systems can therefore be an important means to lower greenhouse gas emissions. To capture the benefits of Compact Fluorescent Lamps, governments can implement policies and measures to overcome such barriers. A number of countries already have experience with such programmes. This paper considers experience from Brazil, California, China, South Africaand the United Kingdomto draw lessons and to help improve the design of future CFL and other technology diffusion programs.
The Case of Solar Thermal Technologies by Cédric Philibert (IEA): Solar thermal technologies offer a great potential for providing a carbon-free response to mankind’s energy demand – about half of it being of heat form. However, despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. Further, numerous barriers still impede the dissemination of solar heat technologies. This paperidentifies barriers of various kinds, lessons learned fromsuccesses and failures, and suggestions for consideration by policy makers, in both industrialised and developing countries, who wish to expand the use of solar thermal and other climate-friendly technologies.
Initial Review of Policies and Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions fromDeforestation by Katia Karousakis (OECD): At COP-11 in Montreal (December, 2005), a two-year process was initiated to consider policy approaches and incentive options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fromdeforestation in developing countries. This paper gives a brief overview of deforestation, outlining the economic concepts related to efficient land-use options and providing an introduction to some of the policy approaches and incentive options that are available to reduce emissions fromdeforestation. These include domestic and international approaches that have been used in the past to capture ‘forest values’ and options that have been suggested to date to capture the ‘carbon values’ associated with forests.
Sectoral Approaches to GHG Mitigation: Scenarios for Integration by Richard Baron(IEA): This paper offers a preliminary analysis of several scenarios for integration of sectoral approaches in international and national climate policy. It considers four broad types of sectoral approaches and how each of these options would integrate in the existing climate regime: 1) A global action, i.e. a unilateral move by industry to foster GHG improvements; 2) A global agreement between industry and Parties to the UNFCCC; 3) A series of national policies targeting a sector, with some intergovernmental coordination; 4) A sectoral crediting mechanismwhereby reductions recorded at a sector level may be eligible for emission credits. The paper explores the possible interactions between these options and the existing climate policy regime.
Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets by Jane Ellis& Dennis Tirpak(OECD): Several different emission trading schemes (ETS) are currently operating, and a number of other national and sub-national schemes are likely to emerge in the near future. These ETS have different sizes, design characteristics and geographical/sectoral scopes. There are currently only a few links between different emissions trading schemes and markets. However, there are no conceptual reasons why links between emission trading systems and markets cannot be expanded. This paper outlines key characteristics of current and proposed ET schemes and assesses current, or possible pre-2012, links between them.
Joint Implementation: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges by Katia Karousakis (OECD): This paper reviews issues and challenges associated with implementing Joint Implementation (JI) under the Kyoto Protocol. The paper begins with an overview of the current JI portfolio and the existing market developments: who are the major buyers and sellers, what sectors are involved, and what are the current market prices for emission reduction units (ERUs). Though JI is currently only a small part of the developing carbon market, JI is developing rapidly.