How do collective bargaining systems and workers’ voice arrangements compare
across OECD and EU countries?


In all OECD countries, workers and employers associate to express their interests and concerns and to negotiate the terms and conditions of employment. However, national systems of collective bargaining display very significant differences, which, in part, are related to different regulations and, in part, to different practices and traditions.

The OECD/AIAS database on Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts (ICTWSS) provides comprehensive and comparable information on the evolving nature and scope of collective bargaining in OECD and EU countries. The database was initially developed by Prof. Jelle Visser at the University of Amsterdam (AIAS-HSI) and, in 2021, it has been rebranded as the OECD/AIAS ICTWSS database. This new name reflects the joint effort by the OECD and AIAS-HSI to ensure the continuation of the database after Prof. Visser’s retirement.

What’s new 

  • In September 2023, a revised version 1.1 has been released accompanied by a detailed methodological note on the calculation of collective bargaining coverage
  • 25 October 2023 | Technical Workshop: Measuring collective bargaining coverage in OECD countries > Agenda



What’s in it? 

  • 56 countries/territories
  • 60 years
  • 100+ variables

Detailed information on:
  • membership to trade unions and employers’ associations
  • collective bargaining coverage
  • statutory minimum wages
  • organisation of collective bargaining & wage co-ordination
  • social pacts
  • works councils


Data Version 1.1 (September 2023)

Methodology and sources:

Link: Collective bargaining page




How does collective bargaining work in your country? The profiles below provide a snapshot of the key elements characterising the functioning of collective bargaining. The profiles use a consistent format and wording to facilitate comparisons across countries and therefore do not describe in full details the exact regulation in each country.


  Additional non-OECD Members   

† Information on statistical data for Israel

†† Note by Turkey The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”.

†† Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. 


Previous vintages 

  • The version 1 of the OECD/AIAS ICTWSS database released in February 2021 can be found here: Excel and CSV
  • Older versions of the ICTWSS database (before the OECD started maintaining and hosting it) can be found at: 



For further details, contact: [email protected]. Journalists should contact the OECD's Media Relations Division on (33) 1 45 24 97 00 or [email protected]

  Small follow us Twitter icon‌ Follow us on Twitter @OECD_Social



 European Union_small The OECD/AIAS ICTWSS database has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union Programme for Employment and Social Innovation “EaSI” (2014-2020), VS/2019/0185. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union.


Related Documents