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Employment policies and data

Employment Outlook 2006 Chapter 3. General Policies to Improve Employment Opportunities for All

 

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     ISBN: 9264023844
     Publication: 13/06/2006
     Pages: 280

Chapter 3. General Policies to Improve Employment Opportunities for All

Has the 1994 Jobs Strategy  reform agenda proven to be effective in practice? The recent experience of OECD countries has been reassuring overall with labour market performance improving most strongly in the countries implementing the most vigorous reforms. Nonetheless, there appears to be considerable scope to update the Jobs Strategy recommendations, so as to better address new priorities and take advantage of new insights into good policy design. Indeed, a number of successful policy innovations during the past decade have expanded the toolbox of measures available to policy makers for improving labour market performance. Less positively, many countries have been reluctant to enact certain employment-friendly reforms, or have done so in a partial manner which has produced disappointing results or even created new problems.

For further reading, see the Key Reports on line and the supplementary statistical material of this chapter.


Contents

1. Macroeconomic policy and labour market performance
1.1. Inflation and monetary policy
1.2. Fiscal policy
1.3. Coordination of macroeconomic and structural policies
2. Impact of welfare systems and labour market programmes on participation and employment
2.1. Unemployment benefits and the incentive to find a job
2.2. The combined impact of social protection benefits and taxes on labour supply and policies to make work pay
2.3. Active labour market programmes and strategies for activating the unemployed
2.4. Policy issues related to welfare benefits that typically have not been conditional on availability for work
3. Impact of wage-setting, taxes and labour- and product-market regulations on labour demand and employment
3.1. Wage-setting institutions and policies
3.2. Taxation of labour income
3.3. Employment protection legislation
3.4. Working-time arrangements
3.5. Product market regulations
4. Lifelong learning and training policies
4.1. The policy challenge
4.2. Implications for policy

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List of tables

Be careful: The table 3.2 of the printed version of this publication contains some mistakes (see the corrigendum for this publication at www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda).

3.1. Unemployment benefit systems: policy reforms over the 1994-2004 period
3.2. Net replacement rates and unemployment insurance benefit duration in 26 OECD countries, 2004
3.3. Literature survey of the econometric evidence of the influence of institutions on equilibrium unemployment: unemployment benefits
3.4. Active labour market programmes (ALMPs): policy reforms over the 1994-2004 period
3.5. Literature survey of the econometric evidence of the influence of institutions on equilibrium unemployment: active labour market programmes (ALMPs)
3.6. Employment rates and benefit dependency rates in the working-age population
3.7. OECD summary indicators for bargaining centralisation and co-ordination since 1970
3.8. Literature survey of the econometric evidence of the influence of institutions on equilibrium unemployment: union density and bargaining coverage
3.9. Literature survey of the econometric evidence of the influence of institutions on equilibrium unemployment: centralisation and co-ordination of wage bargaining
3.10. Ratio of employers’ labour costs for minimum wage workers relative to median wage workers in the 21 OECD countries with statutory minima, 1997, 2000, 2004
3.11. Labour taxes and social security contributions: policy reforms over the 1994-2004 period
3.12. Literature survey of the econometric evidence of the influence of institutions on equilibrium unemployment: labour tax wedges
3.13. Literature survey of the econometric evidence of the influence of institutions on equilibrium unemployment: employment protection legislation (EPL)
3.14. Education and training leave schemes in selected OECD countries

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List of figures

3.1. Evolution of inflation rates across OECD countries, 1984-2004
3.2. Evolution of government structural budget balances across OECD countries, 1984-2004
3.3. Financial returns to work for unemployed, inactive and low-paid individuals, 2002
3.4. Composition of active spending in the OECD area, 1985-2002
3.5. Trends in benefit recipiency, 1980-99
3.6. Trends in wage dispersion since 1970
3.7. Evolution of tax wedges for different earnings levels and family types
3.8. Evolution of value-added taxes, 1994-2003
3.9. Overall summary index of EPL strictness and its three main components, 2003
3.10. Changes in EPL strictness since the late 1980s
3.11. Work situation of couple families with a child under 6, 1985-2002
3.12. Evolution and dispersion in regulatory environments, 1980-2003
3.13. Country groupings based on confidence intervals for the PMR indicators, 2003
3.14. Sources of changes in the OECD average PMR indicator, 1998-2003
3.15. Impact of prior training on the probabilities of unemployment and participation
3.16. Differences in training for selected groups
3.17. Impact of training on the employment prospects of different labour market groups

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 How to Obtain this Publication

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