Principle 5 - Engage stakeholders at every step



Effective Public Investment Line 5



To better meet citizens’ needs and enhance trust in government.
Public investment projects, especially if they concern large infrastructure projects, are often highly politicised and susceptible to being undermined by a lack of consensus building. Stakeholder consultation at different levels of government is of key importance to build consensus and ensure transparency as to how the project meets the needs of directly affected citizens and society at large. Public investment information, such as expenditure data, should be exposed to public scrutiny to promote transparency and accountability.

To benefit from civil society and citizens’ inputs in in priority-setting and impact assessment.
Public, private and civil society actors all have a stake in and a critical role to play in developing a vision and strategy for the economic future of a region or locality. All levels of government should involve stakeholders in priority-setting and needs assessment at early stages of the investment cycle, and feedback and evaluation at later stages. At a minimum, this involves identifying relevant stakeholders, designing sound consultation processes, communicating processes and results, and managing grievances.

To prevent capture by special interest groups.
Governments should also take steps to prevent 'capture' by special interest groups, such as seeking balance when incorporating stakeholder views, ensuring consultation processes are inclusive, open and transparent, and promoting transparency and integrity in lobbying.


  • Develop and implement a stakeholder engagement plan.

  • Make investment information publicly available in a timely, visible and simple way.

  • Ensure engagement procedures are transparent and consistent with the OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying.


  • Disappoint residents if engagement process poorly managed

  • Involve stakeholders too late in the investment project

  • Involve only a limited set of stakeholders


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See real life examples on how countries have been putting this principle into practice. Read more


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Country profiles on how they have been using the toolkit to assess public investment capacity . Read more


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Indicators and self assessment questionnaire on this principle. Read more



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