Skills beyond school

Education Indicators in Focus



What's new?


>> Education Indicators in Focus - No. 82

How are public primary schools funded? 



  Governments vary greatly in the way they decide the level of funding for public primary schools, although typically it involves using a combination of rule-based and discretionary criteria. They also tend to place restrictions on how funding is used by earmarking it for particular categories of expenditure. This practice is not universal, however, and schools in some OECD countries have considerable autonomy in how they allocate their resources even if they have little influence over how much they receive.

Education Indicators in Focus (EDIF) is a recurring series of briefs that highlight specific indicators in OECD’s Education at a Glance that are of particular interest to policy makers and practitioners.

They provide a detailed look into current issues in pre-primary, primary and secondary education, higher education, and adult outcomes from a global perspective, and contain an engaging mix of text, tables and charts that describe the international context of the most pressing questions in education policy and practice.

Browse the EDIFs by theme below. 

Education Indicators in Focus, by theme

Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
Education attainment (level of education of the population)
EDIF 31 How is the global talent pool changing (2013, 2030)? Blog
EDIF 5 How is the global talent pool changing? Blog
EDIF 28 Are young people attaining higher levels of education than their parents? Blog
EDIF 43 Subnational variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes Blog
EDIF 48 A snapshot of 50 years of trends in expanding education Blog
EDIF 50 Educational attainment and investment in education in Ibero-American countries Blog
EDIF 61 How is the tertiary-educated population evolving? Blog
EDIF 73 What are the choices facing first-time entrants to tertiary education? Blog

Graduates (students who just graduate)

EDIF 37 Who are the bachelor's and master's graduates? Blog
EDIF 23 At what age do university students earn their first degree? Blog
EDIF 25 Who are the doctorate holders and where do their qualifications lead them? Blog
Economic and social outcomes (incentives to invest in education, performance)
EDIF 6 What are the returns on higher education for individuals and countries? Blog
EDIF 10 What are the social benefits of education? Blog
EDIF 11 How do early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies, systems and quality vary across OECD countries? Blog
EDIF 46 What influences spending on Education? Blog
EDIF 47 How are health and life satisfaction related to education?  Blog
EDIF 62 How does the earnings advantage of tertiary-educated workers evolve across generations? Blog
EDIF 69 How does socio-economic status influence entry into tertiary education? Blog
EDIF 75 What role might the social outcomes of education play during the COVID-19 lockdown? Blog
Labour market perspective (employment/unemployment; earnings, qualified labour force)
EDIF 1 How has the global economic crisis affect people with different levels of education? Blog
EDIF 7 How well are countries educating young people to the level needed for a job and a living wage? Blog
EDIF 16 How can countries best produce a highly-qualified young labour force? Blog
EDIF 17 Does upper secondary vocational education and training improve the prospects of young adults? Blog
EDIF 27 What are the earnings advantages from education? Blog
EDIF 34 What are the advantages today of having an upper secondary qualification? Blog
EDIF 44 Attainment and labour market outcomes among young tertiary graduates Blog
EDIF 45 Fields of education, gender and the labour market Blog
EDIF 54 Transition from school to work: How hard is it across different age groups?  Blog
EDIF 57  Is labour market demand keeping pace with the rising educational attainment of the population?  Blog
EDIF 65  How do the educational attainment and labour market outcomes of foreign-born adults compare to their native-born peers? Blog
EDIF 68  What characterises upper secondary vocational education and training? Blog 
EDIF 71  How do young people’s educational attainment and labour-market outcomes differ across regions? Blog 
EDIF 76 How are young graduates settling into the labour market? Blog
EDIF 77 How does earnings advantage from tertiary education vary by field of study? Blog
Equity issues (gender balance, income inequality)
EDIF 35 How do differences in social and cultural background influence access to higher education and the completion of studies? Blog
EDIF 32 Are education and skills being distributed more inclusively? Blog
EDIF 30 Education and employment - What are the gender differences? Blog
EDIF 3 How are girls doing in school – and women doing in employment – around the world? Blog
EDIF 4 How pronounced is income inequality around the world – and how can education help reduce it? Blog
EDIF 49 Gender imbalances in the teaching Blog
EDIF 55 What are the gender differences and the labour market outcomes across the different fields of study? Blog
EDIF 59 How does access to early childhood education services affect the participation of women in the labour market? Blog
EDIF 60 How is depression related to education? Blog
EDIF 70 How can the comparability of early childhood education and care statistics be improved? Blog
EDIF 74 How have women’s participation and fields of study choice in higher education evolved over time? Blog
EDIF 79 Why do more young women than men go on to tertiary education?  
EDIF 81 Why is the gender ratio of teachers imbalanced? -
 Other (innovation)
EDIF 24 How innovative is the education sector?


Chapter B: Financial and human resources invested in education
Public/private funding (share of private/public funding; trend in funding)
EDIF 18 What is the impact of the economic crisis on public education spending? Blog
EDIF 8 Is increasing private expenditure, especially in tertiary education, associated with less public funding and less equitable access? Blog
EDIF 41 How much do tertiary students pay and what public support do they receive? Blog
EDIF 46 What influences spending on Education? Blog
EDIF 52 Who bears the cost of early childhood education and how does it affect enrolment? Blog
EDIF 56 Who really bears the cost of education? How the burden of education expenditure shifts from the public to the private sector Blog
EDIF 72  How has private expenditure on tertiary education evolved over time and how does it affect participation in education? Blog

Current/capital expenditure (expenditure on teaching staff, on building...)

EDIF 12 Which factors determine the level of expenditure on teaching staff? Blog
Tuition fees and financial support to students
EDIF 2 How are countries around the world supporting students in higher education?


EDIF 51 Tuition fee reforms and international mobility
Podcast: What are the policy options in terms of foreign students’ fees, and how do they relate to current political events?


Chapter C: Access to education, participation and progression
Initial education (children in pre-primary to tertiary education)
EDIF 33 Focus on vocational education and training (VET) programmes Blog
EDIF 15 How are university students changing? Blog
EDIF 19 What are tertiary students choosing to study? Blog
EDIF 42 What are the benefits from early childhood education? Blog
EDIF 63 How do admission systems affect enrolment in public tertiary education? Blog

Adult education (continuing education, lifelong learning)

EDIF 26 Learning Begets Learning: Adult Participation in Lifelong Education Blog
International mobility (student studying abroad)
EDIF 14 How is international student mobility shaping up? Blog

The internationalisation of doctoral and master’s studies

Transition from school to work (employment and education status)
EDIF 13 How difficult is it to move from school to work?



Chapter D: The learning environment and organisation of schools
Students' instruction time
EDIF 22 How much time do primary and lower secondary students spend in the classroom? Blog
EDIF 38 How is learning time organised in primary and secondary education? Blog

Teachers' characteristics

EDIF 20 How old are the teachers? Blog
EDIF 40 Teachers’ ICT and problem-solving skills: Competencies and needs Blog
Teachers' working conditions (teaching/working time, salaries, class size)
EDIF 21 How much are teachers paid and how much does it matter? Blog
EDIF 29 How much time do teachers spend on teaching and non-teaching activities? Blog
EDIF 9 How does class size vary around the world? Blog
EDIF 53 How have teachers' salaries evolved and how do they compare to those of tertiary-educated workers? Blog
EDIF 58 How do primary and secondary teachers compare? Blog
EDIF 64  How decentralised are education systems, and what does it mean for schools? Blog 
 EDIF 66  How much would it cost to reduce class size by one student?  
EDIF 78 What are the roles and salaries of school heads? Blog
EDIF 36  What are the benefits of ISCED 2011 classification for indicators on education? Blog
EDIF 67 Why does the Sustainable Development Goal on Education (SDG 4) matter for OECD countries? Blog


See also our series on:




Related Documents