Early childhood and schools

Early Childhood Education and Care - Country Studies


The OECD offers country-tailored policy analysis and advice to OECD member and non-member economies. The thematic focus of Country Policy Reviews is being determined according to countries’ needs. Each review explores the most effective policy options to improve an ECEC system. It describes a country’s ECEC system, services and practices in comparison with peer countries; analyses strengths and weaknesses of different approaches; and suggests policy recommendations for improvement.

The review process and timeline is being determined according to local circumstances and country needs. It includes the following milestones which usually take around one year to complete:

  • Preparation of a country background report by the country;
  • A fact-finding mission of a review team composed of OECD staff and international ECEC experts to the country;
  • A review visits where the review team presents preliminary analysis and advice to government officials and stakeholders and seeks their feedback;
  • Preparation and publication of an OECD country note with country-specific policy analysis and recommendations prepared by the OECD and international experts;
  • A dissemination event in the country (optional).

For further information on this please contact the ECEC team.

Examples of recent Country Policy Reviews:

Luxembourg ECEC review: This report looks at Luxembourg’s early childhood education and care with an in-depth focus on its non-formal education system. It outlines the sector’s main strengths and challenges, focusing on workforce development and quality assurance and improvement policies. The report provides tailored policy recommendations to improve provision in line with national goals.

Ireland ECEC review: This report provides an overview of current workforce development measures, as well as an in depth look at the quality improvement (inspection and monitoring) system, offering policy recommendations for consideration.

Norway ECEC review: Norway’s early childhood education and care (ECEC) system has experienced a strong expansion over the last decade. More children than ever are enrolled in its kindergartens.

England ECEC pedagogy review: This review describes variations in, and evidence for, pedagogical approaches in formal early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings; how pedagogy is monitored; and which policies affect pedagogical practice.

Kazakhstan ECEC review: This review highlights the main issues involved in ensuring access, equity and quality in ECEC in Kazakhstan. The report aims to help Kazakh stakeholders give more children access to a place in an ECEC provision, ensure better equity for all children in the system, and enhance the quality of ECEC provision for today’s and future generations.

Kazakhstan ECEC Staff Recruitment and Retention: This review identifies what aspects are important to take into account when attracting and retaining ECEC staff, such as strengthening professional development, expanding the supply pool of potential ECEC teachers, and improving remunerations over time as well as working conditions. Some policy considerations for Kazakhstan are included.

OECD country reviews developed by the Policy Advice and Implementation Division with a chapter on ECEC include:

The OECD has consolidated a rich bank of information containing country-specific ECEC documentation.

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