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Publications & Documents


  • 21-January-2021

    English

    Making the most of teachers’ time

    Teachers’ time is a critical resource for education systems and a key input for student learning. Like any type of resource, teachers’ time can be allocated more or less effectively to promote positive outcomes for students. How school systems regulate teachers’ working time reflects diverse conceptions of the role of teachers and different strategies for making the most of their time. The COVID‑19 pandemic and the rise of remote and hybrid teaching environments in 2020 have further increased the complexity and diversity of tasks that compete for teachers’ time. The pandemic context has also tested the capacity of school systems to adapt provisions for teachers’ use of time quickly in response to changing conditions. Building on the findings from the OECD School Resources Review series and data from the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), this Policy Brief presents policies and practices that can promote an effective use of teachers’ time by exploring the following questions: What do we know about teachers’ effective use of time? How to balance regulations and flexibility to encourage an effective use of time? How to define core tasks and support teachers in prioritising them? Can technology help teachers use their time more effectively?
  • 19-January-2021

    English

    Africa’s Development Dynamics 2021 - Digital Transformation for Quality Jobs

    Africa’s Development Dynamics uses lessons learned in the continent’s five regions – Central, East, North, Southern and West Africa – to develop policy recommendations and share good practices. Drawing on the most recent statistics, this analysis of development dynamics attempts to help African leaders reach the targets of the African Union’s Agenda 2063 at all levels: continental, regional, national and local. The 2021 edition, now published at the beginning of the year, explores how digitalisation can create quality jobs and contribute to achieving Agenda 2063, thereby making African economies more resilient to the global recession triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic. The report targets four main policy areas for Africa’s digital transformation: bridging the digital divide; supporting local innovation; empowering own-account workers; and harmonising, implementing and monitoring digital strategies. This edition includes a new chapter examining how to finance Africa’s development despite the 2020 global economic crisis. Africa’s Development Dynamics feeds into a policy debate between the African Union’s governments, citizens, entrepreneurs and researchers. It aims to be part of a new collaboration between countries and regions, which focuses on mutual learning and the preservation of common goods. This report results from a partnership between the African Union Commission and the OECD Development Centre.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    How does earnings advantage from tertiary education vary by field of study?

    A tertiary degree yields better earnings, especially in countries with a small share of tertiary-educated adults in the population. However, this earnings advantage varies significantly by field of study. In some countries, workers with a tertiary degree in arts and humanities earn less than those with just an upper secondary education. Occupations that have formed the backbone of society during the COVID-19 crisis, such as education and nursing, have among the lowest relative earnings of all fields of study. There is no clear correlation between the share of tertiary graduates by field of study and the relative earnings advantage. This may be due to the selectiveness of some fields, students’ personal interests or misinformation about the labour market. Policy makers will need to consider ways beyond market mechanisms to increase the attractiveness of fields of study which offer essential skills for society.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    Not enough hours in the day - Policies that shape teachers’ use of time

    Teachers’ time is a critical resource for education systems and a key input for student learning. Like any type of resource, teachers’ time can be used more or less effectively to promote a range of outcomes such as student learning, equity and well-being. Whether teachers are given an additional hour in the classroom, an hour to prepare their lessons or an hour to engage in professional learning can affect both the cost and the quality of education. Based on OECD survey data and indicators, this paper provides a systematic overview of how teachers across the OECD report using their time and how their time use is regulated in national policy frameworks. Building on the findings from the OECD School Resources Review series, the paper then explores human resource policies that can support education stakeholders in rethinking priorities, roles and responsibilities in school education and promote an effective use of teachers’ time.
  • 14-January-2021

    English

    PISA-Based Test for Schools - International Linking Study 2020

    An international linking study was conducted in order to link parameters of PISA-based Test for Schools (PBTS) cognitive items to PISA international scales. New booklets for the linking study were designed in which the PISA trend items were inserted as anchor items in addition to the PBTS items. Data was collected from four countries with over 95 000 students via Computer-Based Testing, and analysed with the finite mixture modelling in order to estimate the parameters of PBTS items under the constraint of fixed PISA item parameters. The estimated item parameters were validated in terms of reliability and international comparability. The linking study enabled the PBTS test to provide valid and reliable scores on PISA international scale.
  • 8-January-2021

    English

    Children in the digital environment - Revised typology of risks

    The digital environment has become an integral part of children’s everyday lives and interactions. The benefits can be tremendous, but there also risks. In 2011, the OECD adopted a Typology of Risks in an effort to broadly categorise those risks. Since then the digital environment has changed significantly, as risks have evolved in nature and new ones have emerged. This report informs the OECD’s broader work on children in the digital environment by examining these trends and presenting an updated Typology of Risks. The Typology provides a high-level overview of the risk landscape, and outlines four risk categories and their manifestations. The Typology also identifies and analyses risks that cut across these four risk categories, and that can therefore have wide-ranging effects on children’s lives.
  • 8-January-2021

    English

    A good start in uncertain times: Preparing teachers for a successful career

    Effective teaching starts with high-quality preparation that provides prospective teachers with a strong foundation on which they can continue to build throughout their career. Initial teacher preparation should provide beginning practitioners with a coherent learning experience that integrates coursework, practical training, induction and early career development. This requires education systems to conceive of initial teacher preparation as part of a career-long learning continuum, to expand the range of actors involved in the process, and to create and sustain strong partnerships and feedback loops between schools and teacher education institutions. While the importance of practice-based components in initial teacher education (ITE) is now widely recognised, the COVID-19 disruption of schooling has created new challenges for their implementation. This Policy Brief draws on evidence from the OECD School Resources Review and beyond to explore the following questions: What do we know about effective initial teacher education programmes? How to link teachers’ initial education to induction and continuing professional learning? How to adapt initial teacher preparation to remote and hybrid teaching contexts
  • 22-December-2020

    English

    Literature review on early childhood education and care for children under the age of 3

    This literature review provides an up-to-date comprehensive overview of what is known about process quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision for children under age 3. It builds on empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 2010 and 2019. Current views on process quality for children under age 3 highlight that process quality is a multidimensional and value-laden concept. But there is growing agreement on several core features, namely, the prominence of warm/responsive interactions, the value of both education and care and the importance of strong partnerships with parents. Recent studies show positive links between process quality and infant/toddler development. The evidence is relatively robust in terms of the influences of staff pre-service training, group size and ratios for process quality in centre-based settings, although more limited for home-based settings. Nevertheless, consideration of complex interactions among structural features is noted. Recent studies further advance knowledge on more fine-grained understandings of process quality.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Improving education outcomes for students who have experienced trauma and/or adversity

    All children experience some level of stress in their lives. If stress is persistent and accumulative, it may have detrimental effects on the social, emotional, and physical well-being of the individual child and long-term economic and health impacts on our societies. Understanding the causes, effects, and mitigating and exacerbating factors of adversity and trauma is critical to promote practices and policies for better lives. The purpose of this working paper is to help education policymakers and education leaders and practitioners know how to better support students who have experienced adversity and/or trauma and build their resilience. In this working paper we synthesise the best available evidence for the causes and effects of adversity and/or trauma in children, specify the factors that exacerbate poor educational experiences and outcomes as well as mitigating factors that support resilience, and draw together evidence on effective practices in education systems to improve supports and outcomes for students who have experienced trauma and/or adversity. We also feature five case studies of these effective practices. We conclude with considerations for education stakeholders. This includes, strengthening linkages between schools and services and supports in other sectors; using learner-centred pedagogies for social and emotional learning (SEL) and resilience building; prioritising teacher training and support to understand and respond to adversity and trauma of learners and to promote their own well-being; employing frameworks, such as multi-tiered approaches, to identify and meet the needs of learners; and using technical assistance centres and networks to share evidence-based practices and provide guidance to education stakeholders about how to meet the specific needs of sub-populations of students. Together, these approaches should provide better learning experiences for all learners, especially for those who have experienced adversity and/or trauma.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Raising the Basic Skills of Workers in England, United Kingdom

    This report provides examples and recommendations to help overcome obstacles to engage low-skilled workers and their employers in skills development. England has implemented impressive measures aimed at helping workers and employers to upskill. Nonetheless, there remains room for improvement. More can be done to identify workers with low basic skills, raise awareness of why improving those skills is important, increase the accessibility to relevant courses, ensure these courses are flexible enough to accommodate adult learners who are already employed, and finally make the provision relevant to career aspirations. This report urges England to establish and promote a vision for raising the skills of low-skilled workers, identify their needs more systematically, and provide targeted guidance and information to them and their employers. It highlights that accessible and flexible adult learning opportunities in the workplace, home, community and by other means such as online and distance learning can better meet the varied needs of low-skilled workers. It also makes the case for the use of contextualised learning approaches, which create connections between basic skills and vocational context, and a more effective use of basic skills in workplaces to maintain, develop and realise the benefits of prior skills investments.
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