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Publications & Documents


  • 23-March-2021

    English

    Career Guidance for Adults in Latin America

    Career guidance for adults is a fundamental lever to help adults successfully navigate constantly evolving labour markets. As labour markets in Latin America are hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic and mega trends such as globalisation and digitalisation continue to impact labour demand, support is urgently needed. Millions of adults have lost their jobs and need to identify new career options. However, career guidance for adults is still rare in Latin America. More common are vocational guidance programmes for young people, or labour intermediation services for adults. This report analyses career guidance initiatives for adults in four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico). It emphasises the need to establish career guidance higher up on the policy agenda of the region. Lessons are drawn on how to strengthen the coverage and inclusiveness of career guidance, provision and service delivery, quality and impact, as well as governance and funding. The findings build on information collected through the 2020 Survey of Career Guidance for Adults (SCGA), an online survey of adults’ experience with career guidance.
  • 16-March-2021

    English

    The role of innovation and human capital for the productivity of industries

    This paper sheds light on the relationship between innovation, human capital endowment and upgrading, organisational capital (OC) and labour productivity. In addition to assessing correlations, it uses a Heckman selection model to address causal links and to account for the ways in which skills and investment in R&D affect the probability of innovating. The analysis finds that innovative output, the proportion of OC-related workers, investment in training (especially in informal training) and physical capital intensity are positively and significantly related to productivity. In most estimates ICT skills, cognitive skills and the presence of highly skilled workers in an industry also emerge as having a significant and positive relationship with productivity. ICT skills further appear to indirectly shape productivity, through a positive relationship with innovation.
  • 8-March-2021

    English

    Do girls and boys engage with global and intercultural issues differently?

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to the way gender interacts with intercultural and global learning opportunities. While evidence shows that schools are shaping a gendered citizenry, the notions of citizenship in this research has been notably local with limited focus on global conceptions of citizenship. PISA 2018 asked students a series of questions about their global and intercultural attitudes and dispositions. Those questions focused on the four dimensions of global competence: students’ ability to examine local and global issues, their capacity to understand and appreciate the perspectives of others, their ability to engage in effective communication across cultures, and their willingness to take action for collective well-being and sustainable development. Findings show some important gender differences discussed in this paper.
  • 8-March-2021

    English

    Why do more young women than men go on to tertiary education?

    Understanding the gender dynamics in educational transitions can help target policies to support equitable access to education as well as its quality and labour-market outcomes. In almost all OECD countries, the gender gap in favour of women is wider in tertiary education than at upper secondary level. Differences in programme orientation and girls’ educational performance at school may give them greater access to tertiary education than boys. Changes in the courses on offer in higher education, and the social value of a university education for young women may also influence their choices. In addition, young women tend to gain more from a tertiary degree in the labour market than their male peers, both in terms of employment and earnings, which may make pursuing higher education more attractive.
  • 5-March-2021

    English

    Delivering Quality Education and Health Care to All - Preparing Regions for Demographic Change

    COVID-19 has put renewed focus on the importance of addressing longstanding challenges that OECD governments face in delivering public services, especially in regions with people spread over a wider area where economies of scale are more difficult to achieve. The physical infrastructure needed to provide good quality education and health services can be more complex and expensive in rural and remote regions that also struggle to attract and retain education and health care professionals. Acute ageing trends in many rural regions and, in some cases, a shrinking population will require sustainable policy responses that will need to be coherent with pressure to drive efficiencies in public spending. This report examines the nuances specific to the delivery of education and health care to people everywhere, offering recommendations on how to better adapt provision to the realities of today and the emerging realities of tomorrow to face the challenges of distance, demographic change and fiscal belt-tightening. The report also examines digital connectivity issues in rural and remote regions, recognising the significant scope for digital delivery of services to mitigate challenges related to distance. Finally, the report looks at governance issues, including fiscal issues, through which the delivery of these critical services is administered and paid for.
  • 2-March-2021

    English

    Towards a Skills Strategy for Southeast Asia - Skills for Post-COVID Recovery and Growth

    Skills are central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in a rapidly changing world. Recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic will require countries to co-ordinate interventions to help recent graduates find jobs, reactivate the skills of displaced workers and use skills effectively in workplaces. Megatrends such as globalisation, climate change, technological progress and demographic change will continue to reshape work and society. Countries should take action now to develop and use more effectively the skills required for the world of the future and at the same time make their skills systems more resilient and adaptable in the context of change and uncertainty. The OECD Skills Strategy provides countries with a strategic approach to assess their skills challenges and opportunities. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy framework allowing countries to explore how they can improve i) developing relevant skills, ii) using skills effectively, and iii) strengthening the governance of the skills system. This report applies the OECD Skills Strategy framework to Southeast Asia, providing an overview of the region’s skills challenges and opportunities in the context of COVID-19 and megatrends, and identifying good practices for improving skills outcomes. This report lays the foundation for a more fully elaborated Skills Strategy for Southeast Asia.
  • 24-February-2021

    English

    How schools can help protect young people in a recession

    Career guidance has never been seen as more important but what really makes a difference to the prospects of young people? This paper provides guidance to schools on how school leaders, teachers and guidance professionals can be most confident that they are providing useful support to students. It summarises available research on how schools can be most effective – and shares examples of how countries are helping to prepare young people to become career ready even at the most difficult times. In particular, it focuses on three important teenage attributes which act as indicators for whether they can be expected to do as well as possible in the jobs market. It matters: What teenagers think about their futures in work How they explore their potential futures at home or at school Whether they experience workplaces through part-time working, internships or volunteering. Young people who think about, explore and experience potential future lives in work are much better placed to make decisions that are right for them and compete for available jobs. The paper summarises the key evidence, sets out principles underpinning more effective career guidance and shows how well students are doing in different countries. Finally, encourages interested policy makers and practitioners to stay in touch with OECD work that will conclude late in 2021 with the development of data-driven tools for practice.
  • 22-February-2021

    English

    Creating Responsive Adult Learning Opportunities in Japan

    The COVID-19 crisis has reiterated the importance of adult learning and career guidance services as many adults have lost their jobs and now require upskilling and reskilling opportunities in order to keep pace with the rapidly evolving world of work. To foster the development of responsive and more widespread adult learning opportunities in Japan, this report analyses several policy options to expand access to training, remove the barriers to training participation, and ensure that the training provided is aligned with Japan’s labour market needs. It also discusses the importance for Japanese workers of receiving guidance and support from their employer to facilitate career progression and the need for externally provided guidance services for workers who want to change jobs. Based on this analysis, this report provides actionable policy recommendations as well as good practice examples from OECD countries.
  • 11-February-2021

    English, PDF, 402kb

    Participating in the Study with a Country Diagnosis

    Teachers' Professional Learning Study - Participating in the Study with a Country Diagnosis

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  • 11-February-2021

    English, PDF, 400kb

    Schooling, Teachers and Teaching Project Description

    Schooling, Teachers and Teaching Project Description

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