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Publications & Documents


  • 31-March-2022

    English

    OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has high levels of educational attainment and performs similar to other Western Balkan economies in international assessments of student learning, like the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). However, large shares of students in BiH continue to leave school without mastering basic competencies and there are signs of inequities in the learning outcomes. BiH also has limited comparable data on teaching and learning and faces considerable capacity and resource constraints. Considering collaboration across the country’s different levels of government is limited, these factors prevent the development and implementation of sustainable education reforms. This review explores some of the contextual features of education systems in BiH and highlights how a stronger evaluation and assessment frameworks can help achieve higher learning standards for all students.
  • 29-March-2022

    English

    OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Bulgaria

    Over the past three decades, Bulgaria has carried out important structural reforms which have helped the country reach higher levels of socio-economic development. However, long-standing social disparities and income inequalities remain and Bulgaria’s overall productivity gains have not fully translated into sustainable and inclusive growth. In this context, the country holds education as key to improve the nation’s future economic potential and increase the quality of life of its population. For example, the national development strategy, Bulgaria 2030, sets out an ambitious reform plan that identifies the importance of raising learning outcomes and addressing inequities in order to sustain socioeconomic growth. This review provides recommendations on how evaluation and assessment in Bulgaria’s education system can support the country in reaching its goals.
  • 29-March-2022

    English

    Cyberbullying - An overview of research and policy in OECD countries

    Cyberbullying is a high priority policy challenge in many OECD countries. In recent years, the literature base on cyberbullying has rapidly expanded, shedding insights into the prevalence of the issue, highlighting which characteristics make children more likely to be cyberbullied, those that make them more likely to cyberbully others, and how this affects or is affected by well-being. Education systems have responded to this challenge in different ways such as promoting awareness of the issue, providing support to children in schools, through Internet safety initiatives, and implementing policies and sometimes laws to combat cyberbullying. There are a number of empirically assessed interventions that aim to support victims and reduce perpetration, although more information is needed on how to develop and scale up effective interventions. Furthermore, the current literature base underscores the need to establish a common and agreed upon definition of cyberbullying, and a need for research to identify its causes and effects.
  • 25-March-2022

    English

    Why is the gender ratio of teachers imbalanced?

    Women are strongly over-represented among primary and secondary teachers. This can be explained at least partly by gender stereotypes, but also by the attractiveness of the profession to working mothers and by differences in the relative wage levels in teaching for men and women. Recognising teachers’ contribution to society could help to attract the best qualified candidates to the teaching profession, irrespective of gender.
  • 23-March-2022

    English

    Review of Inclusive Education in Portugal

    The Review of Inclusive Education in Portugal provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues regarding diversity, equity and inclusion in education in Portugal, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches. The report serves three purposes: i) to provide insights and advice to Portuguese education authorities; ii) to help other countries understand the Portuguese approach to inclusive education; and iii) to provide input for comparative analyses of the OECD Strength through Diversity project. The scope for the analysis in this report covers primary (including 1st and 2nd cycle of basic education) and secondary education (including 3rd cycle of basic education and upper secondary). The analysis in the report focuses on the following areas: i) governance and financing of inclusive education; ii) capacity building; iii) school-level interventions and iv) monitoring and evaluation. This report will be of interest in Portugal and other countries looking to improve the equity and inclusion in their education systems.
  • 18-March-2022

    English

    What makes students' access to digital learning more equitable?

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an important tool for school systems as they seek to enhance education and make it more efficient. This has become all the more apparent and urgent with the COVID-19 pandemic. But what degree of access do students from different socio-economic backgrounds have to ICT-based quality instruction? Overall, disadvantaged students tend to have less access to digital learning opportunities both at home and at school. The data also suggest that the way teachers with certain characteristics are distributed can facilitate better equity. Two examples highlighted in this brief are teachers’ digital self-efficacy and training in ICT-based instruction.
  • 18-March-2022

    English

    Policy dialogues in focus for Sweden - International insights for school funding reform

    This policy brief brings together key reflections from the Policy Dialogues in Focus: International Insights for School Funding Reform in Sweden. This seminar offered Swedish policy makers an opportunity to learn from the reform experiences of school funding policy specialists from peer education systems (Australia, United Kingdom and the Netherlands). It also provided them with insights into relevant international comparative and empirical perspectives from the OECD Secretariat. A new seminar series, the Policy Dialogues in Focus, establishes targeted policy dialogue events, driven by a country/group of countries and tailored to their specific needs. These seminars mobilise the knowledge base of the Education Policy Outlook and other relevant OECD expertise on targeted topics. Through an active stakeholder network of international senior policy makers, it also offers first-hand accounts of managing complex policy processes to help provide powerful peer learning experiences for policy makers looking for inspiration or insights from their international peers.
  • 15-March-2022

    English

    Quality and Equity of Schooling in the German-speaking Community of Belgium

    The German-speaking Community of Belgium is in the process of developing an overall vision for its education system (the 'Gesamtvision Bildung') to guide reforms across the education sector for greater quality and equity. To support this process, the OECD review offers an independent analysis of the German-speaking Community’s school system and assesses the system’s strengths and challenges from an international perspective. It provides a description of the system’s policies in international comparison and proposes options for future reforms, covering pre-primary to upper secondary education. The analysis addresses the funding and governance of school education, policies to support equity and inclusion, the evaluation system, school leadership and the development of the teaching profession. The report aims to highlight opportunities for the German-speaking Community to build on the strengths of its school system, enhance the effectiveness of its resource use and ensure that the system delivers the best outcomes for all students.
  • 15-March-2022

    English

    How do girls and boys feel when developing creativity and critical thinking? - Lessons for gender equity

    Do girls and boys report different feelings during teaching and learning for creativity and critical thinking? This document highlights differences between the emotions reported by male and female secondary students in a project about fostering creativity and critical thinking run by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation at the OECD. We explore data from 10 271 secondary school students in 184 schools in 9 countries and draw implications for classroom and system level attempts to embed creativity and critical thinking in education. The emotions associated with learning can lead to different experiences and perceptions of creativity and critical thinking and affect students’ skills development. The information provided here aims to help educators provide more customised support to boys and girls navigating different emotional experiences, and so support equitable outcomes when developing creativity and critical thinking.
  • 14-March-2022

    English

    Mending the Education Divide - Getting Strong Teachers to the Schools That Need Them Most

    Teachers can shape their students' educational careers. Research shows that children taught by different teachers often experience very different educational outcomes. This begs the questions: how are teachers assigned to schools in different countries? And to what extent do students from different backgrounds have access to good teachers? Building on literature identifying the characteristics and practices of teaching that boost student achievement, this report shows how teachers with different characteristics and practices tend to concentrate in different schools, and how much access students with different socio-economic backgrounds have to good teachers. It points out the aspects of different educational systems that influence how teachers are allocated to schools. The report also discusses the consequences that inequitable teacher allocation systems have on students’ educational outcomes.
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