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Publications & Documents


  • 18-January-2021

    English

    How does earnings advantage from tertiary education vary by field of study?

    A tertiary degree yields better earnings, especially in countries with a small share of tertiary-educated adults in the population. However, this earnings advantage varies significantly by field of study. In some countries, workers with a tertiary degree in arts and humanities earn less than those with just an upper secondary education. Occupations that have formed the backbone of society during the COVID-19 crisis, such as education and nursing, have among the lowest relative earnings of all fields of study. There is no clear correlation between the share of tertiary graduates by field of study and the relative earnings advantage. This may be due to the selectiveness of some fields, students’ personal interests or misinformation about the labour market. Policy makers will need to consider ways beyond market mechanisms to increase the attractiveness of fields of study which offer essential skills for society.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    Not enough hours in the day - Policies that shape teachers’ use of time

    Teachers’ time is a critical resource for education systems and a key input for student learning. Like any type of resource, teachers’ time can be used more or less effectively to promote a range of outcomes such as student learning, equity and well-being. Whether teachers are given an additional hour in the classroom, an hour to prepare their lessons or an hour to engage in professional learning can affect both the cost and the quality of education. Based on OECD survey data and indicators, this paper provides a systematic overview of how teachers across the OECD report using their time and how their time use is regulated in national policy frameworks. Building on the findings from the OECD School Resources Review series, the paper then explores human resource policies that can support education stakeholders in rethinking priorities, roles and responsibilities in school education and promote an effective use of teachers’ time.
  • 14-January-2021

    English

    PISA-Based Test for Schools - International Linking Study 2020

    An international linking study was conducted in order to link parameters of PISA-based Test for Schools (PBTS) cognitive items to PISA international scales. New booklets for the linking study were designed in which the PISA trend items were inserted as anchor items in addition to the PBTS items. Data was collected from four countries with over 95 000 students via Computer-Based Testing, and analysed with the finite mixture modelling in order to estimate the parameters of PBTS items under the constraint of fixed PISA item parameters. The estimated item parameters were validated in terms of reliability and international comparability. The linking study enabled the PBTS test to provide valid and reliable scores on PISA international scale.
  • 8-January-2021

    English

    Children in the digital environment - Revised typology of risks

    The digital environment has become an integral part of children’s everyday lives and interactions. The benefits can be tremendous, but there also risks. In 2011, the OECD adopted a Typology of Risks in an effort to broadly categorise those risks. Since then the digital environment has changed significantly, as risks have evolved in nature and new ones have emerged. This report informs the OECD’s broader work on children in the digital environment by examining these trends and presenting an updated Typology of Risks. The Typology provides a high-level overview of the risk landscape, and outlines four risk categories and their manifestations. The Typology also identifies and analyses risks that cut across these four risk categories, and that can therefore have wide-ranging effects on children’s lives.
  • 8-January-2021

    English

    A good start in uncertain times: Preparing teachers for a successful career

    Effective teaching starts with high-quality preparation that provides prospective teachers with a strong foundation on which they can continue to build throughout their career. Initial teacher preparation should provide beginning practitioners with a coherent learning experience that integrates coursework, practical training, induction and early career development. This requires education systems to conceive of initial teacher preparation as part of a career-long learning continuum, to expand the range of actors involved in the process, and to create and sustain strong partnerships and feedback loops between schools and teacher education institutions. While the importance of practice-based components in initial teacher education (ITE) is now widely recognised, the COVID-19 disruption of schooling has created new challenges for their implementation. This Policy Brief draws on evidence from the OECD School Resources Review and beyond to explore the following questions: What do we know about effective initial teacher education programmes? How to link teachers’ initial education to induction and continuing professional learning? How to adapt initial teacher preparation to remote and hybrid teaching contexts
  • 22-December-2020

    English

    Literature review on early childhood education and care for children under the age of 3

    This literature review provides an up-to-date comprehensive overview of what is known about process quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision for children under age 3. It builds on empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 2010 and 2019. Current views on process quality for children under age 3 highlight that process quality is a multidimensional and value-laden concept. But there is growing agreement on several core features, namely, the prominence of warm/responsive interactions, the value of both education and care and the importance of strong partnerships with parents. Recent studies show positive links between process quality and infant/toddler development. The evidence is relatively robust in terms of the influences of staff pre-service training, group size and ratios for process quality in centre-based settings, although more limited for home-based settings. Nevertheless, consideration of complex interactions among structural features is noted. Recent studies further advance knowledge on more fine-grained understandings of process quality.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Improving education outcomes for students who have experienced trauma and/or adversity

    All children experience some level of stress in their lives. If stress is persistent and accumulative, it may have detrimental effects on the social, emotional, and physical well-being of the individual child and long-term economic and health impacts on our societies. Understanding the causes, effects, and mitigating and exacerbating factors of adversity and trauma is critical to promote practices and policies for better lives. The purpose of this working paper is to help education policymakers and education leaders and practitioners know how to better support students who have experienced adversity and/or trauma and build their resilience. In this working paper we synthesise the best available evidence for the causes and effects of adversity and/or trauma in children, specify the factors that exacerbate poor educational experiences and outcomes as well as mitigating factors that support resilience, and draw together evidence on effective practices in education systems to improve supports and outcomes for students who have experienced trauma and/or adversity. We also feature five case studies of these effective practices. We conclude with considerations for education stakeholders. This includes, strengthening linkages between schools and services and supports in other sectors; using learner-centred pedagogies for social and emotional learning (SEL) and resilience building; prioritising teacher training and support to understand and respond to adversity and trauma of learners and to promote their own well-being; employing frameworks, such as multi-tiered approaches, to identify and meet the needs of learners; and using technical assistance centres and networks to share evidence-based practices and provide guidance to education stakeholders about how to meet the specific needs of sub-populations of students. Together, these approaches should provide better learning experiences for all learners, especially for those who have experienced adversity and/or trauma.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Raising the Basic Skills of Workers in England, United Kingdom

    This report provides examples and recommendations to help overcome obstacles to engage low-skilled workers and their employers in skills development. England has implemented impressive measures aimed at helping workers and employers to upskill. Nonetheless, there remains room for improvement. More can be done to identify workers with low basic skills, raise awareness of why improving those skills is important, increase the accessibility to relevant courses, ensure these courses are flexible enough to accommodate adult learners who are already employed, and finally make the provision relevant to career aspirations. This report urges England to establish and promote a vision for raising the skills of low-skilled workers, identify their needs more systematically, and provide targeted guidance and information to them and their employers. It highlights that accessible and flexible adult learning opportunities in the workplace, home, community and by other means such as online and distance learning can better meet the varied needs of low-skilled workers. It also makes the case for the use of contextualised learning approaches, which create connections between basic skills and vocational context, and a more effective use of basic skills in workplaces to maintain, develop and realise the benefits of prior skills investments.
  • 16-December-2020

    English

    Improving the collection of information on literacy proficiency in household surveys

    In the vast majority of the world’s countries, information on the literacy proficiency of the adult population is collected through census collections, labour force surveys or through omnibus household surveys. These commonly use simple measures: respondents’ reports of their own or other household members’ capacity to read and write or the capacity of the respondent to accurately read aloud a short sentence. While there is a justified interest in the use of assessments to collect information regarding literacy proficiency, household surveys using simple measures will continue to be a primary source of data on literacy in many countries for some time. Improvement of the quality of simple measures should, therefore, be a priority. Three main avenues for improvement are identified: greater clarity regarding the concepts being measured, the development of improved simple direct assessments of literacy proficiency and encouragement for the use of a common set of instruments and questions.
  • 16-December-2020

    English

    Career ready? - How schools can better prepare young people for working life in the era of COVID-19

    The focus of this working paper is on how secondary schools can optimise young people’s preparation for adult employment at a time of extreme labour market turbulence. By reviewing academic analysis of national longitudinal datasets, it is possible to identify indicators of comparative adult success. How teenagers (i) think about their futures in work and what they do to (ii) explore and (iii) experience workplaces within and outside of schools is consistently associated with better than expected employment outcomes in adulthood. Data-driven career guidance will take such indicators into account within delivery. Analysis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 illustrates substantial variation in the extent of such career readiness between and within countries. Variation in career readiness is particularly associated with disadvantage. More effective education systems will ensure schools systematically address inequalities in teenage access to information and support in preparing for working life.
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