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Publications & Documents


  • 22-August-2022

    English

    The impact of growing participation in PISA on scaling outcomes - A Monte Carlo simulation study

    The OECD's PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) is expanding on new educational systems from cycle to cycle. Most of the new participants differ significantly and negatively from the core participants in the level of educational proficiency. The study has investigated a potential expansion of the new participants’ proportion from 15% of low performing countries to 50% of low-performing countries in the PISA sample. A simulation study was performed that aimed to check whether an increasing share of low performing countries among PISA participants can affect: a) key country parameters (means and within-country standard deviations), b) item parameters (difficulty and discrimination), and c) sensitivity and specificity of differential item functioning procedures. The results of the study point out that the PISA procedures are fit and robust to the increasing proportion of low-performing countries resulting in highly reliable inter country score differences and estimates of country means.
  • 4-August-2022

    English

    Reinforcing and innovating teacher professionalism - Learning from other professions

    Education systems are facing challenges in relation to attracting and retaining excellent teachers. Strengthening teacher professionalism by deriving insights from other sectors is a promising approach in confronting these issues. This paper maps the position of teaching in the changing landscape of professions using a cross-sectoral approach to identify areas for practitioners, researchers and policymakers to improve teaching status and practice, with repercussions on the public’s respect for the work of teachers. Existing literature, alongside OECD findings, suggest that a focus on career progression and specialisation, autonomy, and status, are promising areas for implementing cross sectoral insights. Simultaneously, teaching is well placed to explore the potential of collaboration, continuing professional learning and engagement with research, thus playing a role in renewing professionalism itself. This paper calls for increased discussion about teacher professionalism at the local level, with teachers themselves at the forefront of innovation supported by researchers and policymakers.
  • 2-August-2022

    English

    Policy responses to false and misleading digital content - A snapshot of children’s media literacy

    The digital environment offers opportunities that can enrich children’s physical and mental well-being. Yet, false and misleading digital content, including disinformation and misinformation, is a risk. It can deepen political polarisation, erode public trust in democratic institutions and threaten public health. Media literacy is part of a suite of policies countries are using to maximise digital opportunities and minimise digital risks. This paper has four parts. First, it outlines current research and definitions relating to false and misleading digital content and looks at children's behaviour in the digital environment. Second, the concepts of media literacy, digital literacy and other relevant competencies are discussed. Third, research on children’s experiences of false and misleading digital content and their perceived levels of digital media literacy is analysed. Finally, policies and practices which deliver media literacy are discussed. Research limitations and other barriers, such as teacher training, are described.
  • 29-July-2022

    English

    Human resources in higher education in Israel

    This policy brief is part of a series of thematic policy briefs prepared as part of the OECD's Resourcing Higher Education Project. It examines the frameworks that govern the employment of academic staff in publicly funded higher education institutions in Israel. It compares these frameworks to those in place in comparable OECD higher education systems and draws on these comparisons, along with insights from discussions with higher education experts in Israel, to identify policy options for enhancing human resources policy in Israel’s public higher education system.
  • 18-July-2022

    English

    Who Cares about Using Education Research in Policy and Practice? - Strengthening Research Engagement

    Across the OECD, enormous effort and investment has been made to reinforce the quality, production and use of education research in policy and practice. Despite this, using research in education remains a challenge for many countries and systems. The OECD launched the Strengthening the Impact of Education Research project to respond to this challenge. This publication reports on the first phase of the project. It maps the various structures, processes, actors and relationships that reinforce the quality, production and use of education research in policy and practice. The publication brings together leading experts who provide insights into recent research and international experience gathered from both policy and practice, including from other sectors such as health, agriculture and environment. The publication provides a first set of analyses of data collected from over 30 systems through an OECD survey. It describes the mechanisms used to facilitate research use in education policy and practice, and the levels of engagement of various actors in these processes. By mapping the drivers of, and barriers to, using research systematically and at scale, the publication sets out an agenda for future inquiry. It can be a resource for policy makers, educational leaders, teachers and the research community.
  • 13-July-2022

    English

    The state of the field of computational thinking in early childhood education

    Computer programming and associated Computational Thinking (CT) skills are essential to thriving in today’s academic and professional world. There has been a growing focus globally on fostering CT skills as well as on introducing computer programming concepts and languages beginning as early as kindergarten and pre-primary school. Tools, curriculum, and frameworks to promote CT in the early years must be designed and implemented in ways that engage children who cannot yet read and write, who learn through play, and who have a short attention span and limited working memory but also strong natural curiosity. This review summarises empirical and theoretical literature on the state of the field of CT as it relates to early learning and development, a time when young children are being introduced to foundational skills, such as literacy and numeracy, which can carefully be complemented by an exploration of CT.
  • 12-July-2022

    English

    Does the digital world open up an increasing divide in access to print books?

    Over the last two decades, reading has shifted from taking place on paper to, increasingly, screens. As digitalisation spreads, there have been growing concerns about unbalanced access to new types of resources between socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students. PISA 2018 results show that while disadvantaged students are catching up in terms of access to digital resources, their access to cultural capital like paper books at home has diminished, and the socio-economic gap has been persistent over the last two decades. This policy brief draws education stakeholders’ attention to this issue and provides evidence for the discussion of equity in education by examining how access to books at home is related to students’ prevalent mode of reading books, their performance in reading and their enjoyment of reading.
  • 24-June-2022

    English

    Well-being analytics for policy use - Modelling health and education outcomes in Italy

    The present paper presents methodologies to forecast and conduct policy analysis for three well-being indicators with the goal of informing the Italian government’s budget planning process. For each of the three indicators (healthy life expectancy, overweight and obesity, and early school leaving), a model is developed that allows projecting future trends under a status quo scenario and that allows estimating the impact of policy and budget levers on future outcomes. The micro-economic models for being in good health have a moderate explanatory power with an R2 ranging between 0.2 and 0.3. The strongest predictors of good health are by far the prevalence of chronic diseases, followed by low mental health, sport practice and diet. Overall, the combined changes in inputs yield an improvement in the share of people declaring being in good health by 2.7 ppt, from a baseline of 62% among people older than 18. The micro-economic model for being in excess weight has lower explanatory power (R2 between 0.05 and 0.15). As a result, the combined changes in inputs yield a relatively small decrease by 0.5 ppt starting from a baseline of 47.6% of the population. The most important predictors are those associated with a healthy diet. Finally, the cross-region macro-economic model of early school leaving has high explanatory power (R2 above 0.90) and highlights a wide range of ‘push and pull’ factors. The combination of benchmark inputs yields a decrease in the rate of early leavers by 1.8 ppt, starting from a baseline of 13.1%. Overall, these results highlight the large scope for policy intervention to improve well-being outcomes, as well as the multiplicity of policy levers.
  • 23-June-2022

    English

    Youth at the Centre of Government Action - A Review of the Middle East and North Africa

    Young people have demonstrated resilience to shocks and led positive change in their communities across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Young people (aged under 30) constitute more than half (55%) of the population across MENA, compared with 36% of the population across OECD countries. While challenges vary significantly across the region, youth unemployment rates are among the highest in the world, young people tend to express low trust in public institutions, and nearly four in ten live in fragile and conflicted-affected areas. The COVID-19 crisis has underscored the need to place the needs of young people at the centre of an inclusive and resilient recovery. To support this process, this report analyses current governance arrangements and practices across 10  MENA governments in three areas: 1) uniting all government stakeholders to implement a shared, integrated youth policy and deliver services to young people; 2) building administrative and institutional capacities to mainstream the perspectives of young people in policy making; and 3) encouraging the participation and representation of young people and youth stakeholders in public and political life.
  • 22-June-2022

    English

    The Inclusion of LGBTQI+ students across education systems - An overview

    Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex or somewhere else on the gender/sexuality spectrum (LGBTQI+) are among the diverse student groups in need of extra support and protection in order to succeed in education and reach their full potential. Because they belong to a minority that is often excluded by heteronormative/cisgender people, they are often the targets of physical and psychological harassment. Such discrimination can place them at risk for isolation, reduced academic achievement, and physical and mental harm. This paper provides a brief history of how the LGBTQI+ population has often been misunderstood and labelled in order to understand challenges faced by students who identify as a part of this population. It continues by considering supportive educational policies and programmes implemented from national to local levels across OECD countries. Finally, the paper considers policy gaps and discusses policy implications to strengthen equity and inclusion for LGBTQI+ students.
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