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Publications & Documents


  • 15-December-2020

    English

    Lessons for Education from COVID-19 - A Policy Maker’s Handbook for More Resilient Systems

    The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken long-accepted beliefs about education, showing that learning can occur anywhere, at any time, and that education systems are not too heavy to move. When surveyed in May 2020, only around one-fifth of OECD education systems aimed to reinstate the status quo. Policy makers must therefore maintain the momentum of collective emergency action to drive education into a new and better normal. This Handbook provides practical guidance to support them to do just that. It presents the current state-of-play in over 40 education systems, and efforts to improve pedagogical practices in the midst of the pandemic. It proposes three key lessons and related policy pointers for the current academic term and beyond. Drawing on concrete examples of COVID-19 policy responses from primary to tertiary, as well as impactful pre-crisis policies, it addresses the policy areas of flexible learning, educator skills, and student equity. The Handbook has been prepared with evidence from the Education Policy Outlook series – the OECD’s analytical observatory of education policy. As such, it benefits from a decade of policy analysis, outcomes from the Education Policy Reform Dialogues 2020, and the development of an actionable Framework for Responsiveness and Resilience in education.
  • 15-December-2020

    English

    Education in Ireland - An OECD Assessment of the Senior Cycle Review

    Ireland is undertaking a review of their senior cycle (upper secondary education) led by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA). It aims at collecting the views of all relevant stakeholders to identify the strengths and challenges of senior cycle in its current form, and identify priority issues and actions to move forward. As part of OECD’s implementing education policies project, an OECD team was invited to support the review of Ireland’s senior cycle. The team has carried out the assessment presented here and provided strategic advice based on four analytical aspects: smart policy design, inclusive stakeholder engagement, conducive context and a coherent implementation strategy. Each one of these dimensions matters to ensure that the review of senior cycle can move forward based on evidence and with strong support from stakeholders.
  • 14-December-2020

    English

    Developing a school evaluation framework to drive school improvement

    Kazakhstan has made tremendous progress in ensuring universal access to primary and lower-secondary education. Nevertheless, results international surveys reveal that almost two-thirds of students from Kazakhstan complete schooling without mastering the basic skills needed to be successful, and that student achievement is increasingly inequitable. This policy perspective provides Kazakhstan with recommendations about how to strengthen its school evaluation system in order to improve the learning outcomes of all students. It is part of a larger OECD review of Kazakhstan that is published as four policy perspectives, each examining a key policy issue
  • 14-December-2020

    English

    Developing a national assessment that supports Kazakhstan’s education goals

    Kazakhstan has made tremendous progress in ensuring universal access to primary and lower-secondary education. Nevertheless, results international surveys reveal that almost two-thirds of students from Kazakhstan complete schooling without mastering the basic skills needed to be successful, and that student achievement is increasingly inequitable. This policy perspective provides Kazakhstan with recommendations about how to strengthen its national assessment in order to improve the learning outcomes of all students. It is part of a larger OECD review of Kazakhstan that is published as four policy perspectives, each examining a key policy issue.
  • 14-December-2020

    English

    Raising the quality of initial teacher education and support for early career teachers in Kazakhstan

    Kazakhstan has made tremendous progress in ensuring universal access to primary and lower-secondary education. Nevertheless, results international surveys reveal that almost two-thirds of students from Kazakhstan complete schooling without mastering the basic skills needed to be successful, and that student achievement is increasingly inequitable. This policy perspective provides Kazakhstan with recommendations about how to strengthen its initial teacher education and support for early career teachers in order to improve the learning outcomes of all students. It is part of a larger OECD review of Kazakhstan that is published as four policy perspectives, each examining a key policy issue.
  • 14-December-2020

    English

    Strengthening national examinations in Kazakhstan to achieve national goals

    Kazakhstan has made tremendous progress in ensuring universal access to primary and lower-secondary education. Nevertheless, results international surveys reveal that almost two-thirds of students from Kazakhstan complete schooling without mastering the basic skills needed to be successful, and that student achievement is increasingly inequitable. This policy perspective provides Kazakhstan with recommendations about how to strengthen its national examinations in order to improve the learning outcomes of all students. It is part of a larger OECD review of Kazakhstan that is published as four policy perspectives, each examining a key policy issue.
  • 11-December-2020

    English

    Curriculum reform - A literature review to support effective implementation

    Countries consider curriculum reform as an important and necessary measure to make schools enter the 21st century and respond to a fast-changing world. In recent years, many OECD countries have engaged in curriculum reform as a way to equip children with the knowledge, skills and competences needed for tomorrow. However, how to initiate such change in the most suitable and effective way remains somewhat challenging. In other words, there is a missing step between the intention, and the realisation of this curriculum renewal, crystallising what has been coined in the literature 'the implementation gap'. This paper analyses the curriculum reform literature through the lens of the OECD proposed implementation framework that promotes, among others, inclusive stakeholder engagement. Curriculum reform has indeed long been considered from a 'top-down' perspective, but has progressively shifted towards a more 'bottom-up' approach, emphasising the central role of teachers in the process. The analysis is enriched with successful practices and examples from different countries, and concludes with a specific resource for countries to make the lessons learned actionable through the planning of a coherent curriculum implementation strategy
  • 10-December-2020

    English

    Policy approaches and practices for the inclusion of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OECD countries have developed various practices and policy approaches to promote inclusive education systems for students with special education needs (SEN), which include learning disabilities, physical impairments and mental disorders. Among the latter, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a particularly relevant: being often comorbid with other learning disabilities, it causes significant difficulties in academic and social outcomes to affected students. Compared to other disorders that can cause difficulties to students, ADHD is less consistently accepted as an impairing condition. Mapping and analysing the key elements of diverse practices across OECD countries is fundamental to correctly define the situation of students with ADHD in education systems and the future direction of policy-making. Through a holistic approach, the paper adopts the analytical framework developed by the OECD’s Strength through Diversity project: Education for Inclusive Societies to analyse policies and practices to include students with ADHD in education systems and promote their well-being.
  • 10-December-2020

    English

    Love & let live - Education and sexuality

    The expansion of school-based sexuality education in most countries has taken place with a strong focus on conveying information about sexual and reproductive health. While this is important so too is addressing the actual social contexts where relationships develop and the normalcy of pleasurable sexual and affective encounters. This is not only aligned with the rights and best interest of children and adolescents, it is also a more effective way to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes for all. A positive and inclusive approach to sexuality education that addresses the actual social contexts of sex and relationships is assertive of the rights, dignity and safety of all individuals, irrespectively of their physical and intellectual ability, gender identity and expression, sexual orientation and sex characteristics.
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