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Publications & Documents


  • 20-May-2022

    English

    Companion Document to the OECD Recommendation on Children in the Digital Environment

    The OECD Recommendation on Children in the Digital Environment provides guidance for governments and other stakeholders on putting in place policies and procedures to empower and protect children in the digital environment. The Recommendation was developed in recognition that the digital environment is a fundamental part of children’s daily lives, and that strong policy frameworks are needed to both protect children from any potential harm, and to help them realise the opportunities that it can bring. This companion document aims to assist governments and other stakeholders in implementing the Recommendation. It expands upon the context in which the Recommendation was developed, and considers in detail specific aspects of the Recommendation, in particular different stakeholders and their roles (e.g. parents, governments, digital service providers) as well as key underlying concepts such as children’s privacy, digital literacy and child safety by design.
  • 19-May-2022

    English

    Gender stereotypes in education - Policies and practices to address gender stereotyping across OECD education systems

    In spite of advances in recognising that girls and boys, and women and men, do not have to be bounded by traditional roles, gender stereotypes persist in education and beyond. Children and youth are affected by gender stereotypes from the early ages, with parental, school, teacher and peer factors influencing the way students internalise their gender identities. As such, not only is intervening in pre-primary education necessary, but also measures at the primary and secondary levels are key to eradicate gender stereotypes and promote gender equality. Based on the analytical framework developed by the OECD Strength through Diversity project, this paper provides an overview of gender stereotyping in education, with some illustrations of policies and practices in place across OECD countries, with a focus on curriculum arrangements, capacity-building strategies and school-level interventions in primary and secondary education. 
  • 16-May-2022

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance for Flanders, Belgium - The Faces of Learners in Flanders

    This OECD Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance report presents a model for the segmentation of the adult learning population in Flanders, which resulted in the identification of nine representative learner profiles. These profiles provide unique insights into the diversity of factors that affect decisions to participate in learning, including motivation, obstacles to learning, socio-demographic characteristics, and labour market characteristics. These profiles will assist Flanders’ reflections on how to target and tailor existing and new lifelong learning policies to the needs of learners.
  • 12-May-2022

    English

    Building on COVID-19's Innovation Momentum for Digital, Inclusive Education

    Education systems can build on school-led micro-innovations during the pandemic to develop more equitable learning. Empowering teachers to be autonomous, actively engaged in designing learning environments, and knowledgeable and dynamic in using multi-modal technology can encourage more peer-to-peer collaboration in schools and enrich pedagogy. This will be crucial in addressing the learning needs of disadvantaged students and boosting science proficiency with the goal of societal equity.
  • 9-May-2022

    English

    Quality assurance and improvement in the early education and care sector

    A diverse range of policies and practices are needed to promote quality assurance and improvement in early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision. These policies and practices need to be comprehensive, cover both structural and process aspects of quality and rely on strong institutions and data systems. They can satisfy the need for public accountability while also providing feedback on the strengths and weaknesses of individual services and the sector as a whole in order to inform further actions for improvement. Quality assurance and improvement policies are particularly important in the ECEC sector, which is often characterised by a 'market approach' with a heavy reliance on private providers.
  • 9-May-2022

    English

    Early childhood education and care workforce development - A foundation for process quality

    The early childhood education and care (ECEC) workforce is foundational for providing high-quality learning, development and well-being experiences for young children. Policies can support the development of this workforce by addressing requirements for initial education and continuing professional development, as well as the working conditions of ECEC staff. Examining different policy approaches with a focus on Ireland and Luxembourg, this Policy Brief highlights key opportunities for peer learning across countries interested in enhancing process quality in ECEC through workforce development.
  • 5-May-2022

    English

    Pathways to Professions - Understanding Higher Vocational and Professional Tertiary Education Systems

    Higher vocational and professional tertiary education includes programmes with very different design features and functions, ranging from two-year programmes in tertiary institutions through professional bachelor degrees to free-standing professional examinations designed to upskill existing practitioners. In some European countries the scale of enrolment in the higher vocational and professional tertiary education sector now rivals that in regular universities. But not all countries have established a separate sector; in some countries applied, practically oriented programmes are taught within multi-purpose institutions alongside programmes like history or physics. This report compares this sector across OECD countries, drawing on quantitative and qualitative data. It describes types of programmes across countries and assesses data quality. The report zooms in on pathways leading into vocational and professional programmes and transitions into further learning or the labour market, as well as the profile of learners served by these programmes and links to the labour market. Comparative data in this area have major gaps because of the lack of internationally agreed definitions for programme orientation at tertiary levels. This report proposes a three-way classification to resolve this problem and sets out practical tools to implement this and thereby improve data availability and quality.
  • 27-April-2022

    English

    The Short and Winding Road to 2030 - Measuring Distance to the SDG Targets

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has an unprecedented ambition, but also confronts countries with an enormous challenge given the complex and integrated nature of the Agenda with its 17 Goals, underpinned by 169 Targets. To assist national governments with their implementation, the OECD has developed a unique methodology allowing comparison of progress across SDG goals and targets, and also over time. Based on the Global indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and leveraging UN and OECD data, this report provides a high-level assessment of OECD Member countries’ performance across the Goals and Targets of the 2030 Agenda. The report evaluates the distance that OECD countries need to travel to meet SDG targets for which data is currently available, but it goes one step further and deepens the analysis by identifying long-term trends, considering also how these trends may be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. By providing a high-level overview of countries’ strengths and weaknesses in performance across the SDGs, it aims to support Member countries in navigating the SDGs and in setting their own priorities for action within the broad 2030 Agenda.
  • 26-April-2022

    English

    What can we do to ensure a level playing field for all students?

    Many education systems aim to provide learning opportunities to all students regardless of their backgrounds in order for them to realise their potential. Education systems are expected to break down barriers to social mobility. However, too often, children are not given enough opportunities to succeed, to pursue their interests, or to develop their skills. Individual circumstances over which students have no control often affect the quality of the schooling they receive and the educational path they choose. They also influence students’ development of attitudes and dispositions toward learning, and can shape students’ dreams for their future. Differences in opportunities for students often result in achievement gaps among students with different backgrounds. Over the last 20 years, PISA has shown that students’ socio-economic status, which includes parents’ occupations and educational levels and home possessions, are predictors of performance scores in reading, mathematics and science in all countries and economies participating in PISA. So far, this has been without a single exception. This policy brief points to key aspects to consider in providing students with needed opportunities to level the playing field for all students and achieve greater equity in education beyond the exigencies of the pandemic.
  • 25-April-2022

    English

    Accessing Higher Education in the German State of Brandenburg

    Brandenburg’s economy is undergoing structural change, which opens exciting new prospects for highly skilled workers. The state has intensified efforts to diversify the economy towards cleaner and more knowledge-intensive industries, including the development of advanced manufacturing, spill-over effects from the start-up scene in Berlin, fostering entrepreneurial activities at its own higher education institutions, promoting innovative places for working and living, and phasing out of coal production in favour of next-generation technologies. As the engine of skills development and research, the higher education system will play an important role in helping the state unleash these opportunities. The German State of Brandenburg has therefore entrusted the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – in close collaboration with and supported by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Structural Reform Support – with the development of recommendations on how to enhance the visibility of its institutions’ programme offer, align this offer with the skills and innovation demand, and make it more attractive to prospective students from the state and beyond.
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