Centre for Educational Research and Innovation - CERI

Innovation Strategy for Education and Training Innovation: the OECD Definition


CERI’s project proposes focusing on two main areas: human capital for innovation, and innovation in education and training systems. The harmonised OECD/Eurostat definition of innovation is used for this project.

There are essentially four types of innovation identified in the Oslo Manual for measuring innovation: product innovation; process innovation; marketing innovation and organisational innovation.


Product Innovation

This involves a good or service that is new or significantly improved. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, incorporated software, user friendliness or other functional characteristics. In the education sector, a product innovation can be a new or significantly improved curriculum, a new educational software, etc.



Process innovation involves a new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software. In education, this can for example be a new or significantly improved pedagogy.


Marketing Innovation

Marketing innovation involves a new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing. In education, this can for example be a new way of pricing the education service or a new admission strategy.


Organisational Innovation

Organisational innovation involves introducing a new organisational method in the firm’s business practices, workplace organisation or external relations. In education, this can for example be a new way organization of work between teachers, or organizational changes in the administrative area.

These innovations can be new to the firm/educational institution, new to the market/sector or new to the world.


See also Towards an innovation strategy, by Secretary-General Angel Gurrià