OECD-EU Online Workshop on Regulation of Artificial Intelligence

Organised jointly by the OECD Economics Department and the European Commission 

Aim of the workshop

The aim of this workshop was to better understand the competition challenges that recent developments in artificial intelligence are raising and to identify areas where ex-ante regulatory interventions may be required to address them.

The workshop consisted of 3 sessions that examined the key elements of the AI value chain: 

  • foundation models,
  • data, and
  • cloud computing. 

In each session industry representatives, policy-makers, and academics shared their views and discussed the future of AI regulation.‌  




Keynote speaker

Amelia Fletcher CBE is a Professor of Competition Policy at Norwich Business School and Deputy Director at the Centre for Competition Policy, University of East Anglia. She has been a Non-Executive Director of the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority, Financial Conduct Authority and Payment Systems Regulator. She was a member of the HM Treasury-commissioned Digital Competition Expert Panel, which reported in March 2019. She has been a member of the Enforcement Decision Panel at Ofgem, and Chief Economist at the Office of Fair Trading. Her academic work focuses on competition policy, consumer policy and sector regulation, with a particular focus on behavioural economics and digital markets. Amelia has a DPhil and MPhil in economics from Nuffield College, Oxford. Amelia is currently acting as an expert in two antitrust cases relating to big tech firms.

Useful links

Panel 1

OECD blog post “Artificial Intelligence: Promises and perils for productivity and broad-based economic growth”, 16 April, 2024,

OECD AI paper “The impact of Artificial Intelligence on productivity, distribution and growth”, 16 April 2024,

Thibault Schrepel and Alex Pentland “Competition between AI Foundation Models: Dynamics and Policy Recommendations”, 10 July 2023,

Anton Korinek “Concentrating Intelligence: Scaling Laws and Market Structure in Generative AI”, February 2024, available on

Competition and Markets Authority “AI Foundation Models: Update paper”, 11 April 2024,

Daniel Rock “Engineering Value: The Returns to Technological Talent and Investments in Artificial Intelligence”, 29 April 2021,


Keio Times “Student-Led Learning Community at the Cutting Edge of AI”, 28 April 2022,

Associated Press “A congressman wanted to understand AI. So he went back to a college classroom to learn”, 11 April 2024,

Thibault Schrepel, Scaling Theory podcast “#3 – Thomas Wolf: Open-Source AI Scaling Laws”, 15 April 2024,

Panel 2

Bertin Martens “Economic arguments in favour of reducing copyright protection for generative AI inputs and outputs”, 04 April 2024,

European Internet Forum “The World Towards 2040: The Rise of AI and Intelligent Autonomy. What does it mean for Europe?”, 2024,

Panel 3

Autorité de la Concurrence “Opinion 23-A-08 of 29 June 2023 on competition in the cloud sector”, 29 June 2023,

Workshop video