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Publications & Documents


  • 30-June-2021

    English

    Typology of Corruption Risks in Commodity Trading Transactions

    Commodity trading presents specific and heightened risks of corruption due to the large amount of money involved in commodity trading transactions, which are source of important revenues for developing countries, and due to the sophisticated mechanisms used to channel corrupt payments. These include complex and opaque corporate structures, the use of off-shore entities, that render the identification of beneficial owners more difficult, the use of intermediaries (including briefcase or shell companies) and joint ventures with politically exposed persons (PEPs). This report maps out corruption risks of cross-cutting relevance for the sales of oil, gas and minerals that can arise at several points in commodity trading transactions. It contributes to advancing the global transparency and accountability agenda in commodity trading, by improving understanding and raising awareness of corruption red flags and evolving corruption patterns across a wide range of stakeholders, including home jurisdictions of buying companies, trading hubs, host governments, state-owned enterprises and buying companies.
  • 29-June-2021

    English

    Strengthening Macroprudential Policies in Emerging Asia - Adapting to Green Goals and Fintech

    Many Emerging Asian countries have been refining macroprudential policies, particularly since the Global Financial Crisis. For instance, they have developed policies targeting housing markets and broadly transposed the Basel III requirements into their national legislation. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers now need to identify emerging vulnerabilities and their associated financial stability risks and respond with the appropriate macroprudential tools. This publication provides a detailed overview of the current macroprudential policy situation in Emerging Asian countries and explores how the macroprudential policy toolkit has evolved. The report discusses some of the most pressing challenges to financial stability, including the interaction of macroprudential policy with other policies. It also devotes special attention to macroprudential policies for emerging priorities, such as achieving green goals and updating regulatory frameworks to reflect ongoing Fintech developments. Climate change will indeed create new challenges in financial markets, while Fintech developments bring about many economic opportunities and deepen financial systems, but present a variety of novel risks requiring rapid policy responses.
  • 28-June-2021

    English

    Clean Energy Finance and Investment Policy Review of Indonesia

    Thanks to tremendous renewable energy and energy efficiency potential and a stable, dynamic economy, Indonesia has become a coveted destination for investors in the clean energy sector. Clean energy investment, however, remains far below the level needed to realise Indonesia’s ambitious clean energy and sustainable finance goals. Instead, investment in fossil fuels continues to dominate. This first Clean Energy Finance and Investment Policy Review of Indonesia supports efforts to reverse these trends and achieve a clean energy transition. The report provides a comprehensive overview of the current policy framework, highlighting progress and identifying untapped opportunities for strengthening policy interventions that can help scale up clean energy finance and investment. It also provides a number of tailored recommendations for the Government of Indonesia and development partners. The Review was undertaken within the OECD Clean Energy Finance and Investment Mobilisation (CEFIM) Programme, which supports governments in emerging economies to unlock finance and investment in clean energy.
  • 21-June-2021

    English, PDF, 2,875kb

    The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on external debt in small island developing states

    This paper gives an overview of debt in small island developing states (SIDS). It provides an analysis of liquidity and solvency problems faced by SIDS and introduces a quantitative estimation of hidden (or off-the-radar) Chinese overseas loans.

    Related Documents
  • 17-June-2021

    English

    DAC List of ODA Recipients

    The DAC List of ODA Recipients shows all countries and territories eligible to receive official development assistance (ODA).

  • 14-June-2021

    English

    Development Co-operation Profiles

    The OECD’s Development Co-operation Profiles compile and analyse verified statistics and trends on how development assistance is allocated geographically, to sectors, multilateral and civil society organisations, cross-cutting priorities such as gender equality and women’s economic empowerment and the environment and climate, and to mobilise private finance. The profiles cover official and philanthropic providers of aid, official development assistance (ODA) and development finance. These providers include members of the OECD and its Development Assistance Committee (DAC), other countries and philanthropic foundations. The profiles also give an overview of key strategic and policy priorities for development co-operation, the institutional set-up and evaluation systems. The Development Co-operation Profiles are published annually and are a pillar of the OECD’s Development Co-operation Report . For more than 50 years, the Development Co-operation Report has brought new evidence, analysis and ideas to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and international community more broadly, shaping policy reform, behaviour change and promoting best practices in development co-operation. Each year the report analyses a fresh policy issue that is timely, relevant or challenging for development co-operation policy and finance. The main report also includes shorter profiles of each provider that present key trends through infographics.
  • 10-June-2021

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of the Western Balkans - Assessing Opportunities and Constraints

    The Western Balkans region has come a long way over the last two decades in achieving economic and social progress. With a population of 17.6 million, the region today boasts a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of close to EUR 100 billion, an average GDP per capita of about EUR 5 400 and a comprehensive process of integration with the European Union. This report provides multi-dimensional assessments across the economic, social, finance, governance and environmental pillars of sustainable development for five economies of the region. The region’s location, its deep relationships with Europe and its academic tradition present many opportunities for future development, especially at a time when distances are shrinking further with digitalisation. Making the most of this potential will require collaboration in tackling challenges, which have been further exposed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Boosting competences and education, strengthening social cohesion and ensuring a green transformation towards clean energy and the valuation of the region’s natural wealth, emerge as strategic priorities. Beyond practical and financial constraints, future solutions must address considerable institutional and governance challenges that remain across the region.
  • 9-June-2021

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Germany 2021

    The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts reviews of the individual development co operation efforts of its members every five to six years. DAC peer reviews critically examine the overall performance of a given member covering its policy, programmes and systems. They take an integrated, system wide perspective on the development co operation activities of the member under review and its approach to fragility, crisis and humanitarian assistance. This peer review shows that Germany invests in fair and sustainable globalisation and a rules-based multilateral order. It provided 0.73% of its national income as official development assistance in 2020. The country is adjusting its engagement with Africa and reforming the way it delivers development co-operation. Germany could be more systematic in analysing and addressing the spill-over effects of its policies on developing countries. German development co-operation would benefit from a clearer vision and greater investment in gender equality and leaving no one behind, and embedding a culture of results. Its clear vision and comprehensive approach to crises would benefit from better defining short and long-term engagements.
  • 7-June-2021

    English

    Data for Development Profiles - Official Development Assistance for Data and Statistical Systems

    Sound and timely data and statistics are essential for designing better policies for better lives. When the right data are available and used by policy makers, they play a crucial role in managing crises, as revealed during the COVID-19 pandemic. They are also indispensable for transparent and accountable delivery of policies and services and to guide business and investment decisions in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The first 2021 edition of the OECD’s Data for Development Profiles is a unique source of information and insights on how members of the Development Co-operation Committee (DAC) allocate official development assistance (ODA) to statistical capacity development and strengthening data ecosystems in low and middle income countries. By providing a comprehensive overview of members’ data and statistical policy priorities, strategies, funding, delivery modalities and partnerships, the profiles serve as a baseline for co-ordinating international support and highlight ways forward for greater impact and effectiveness.
  • 4-June-2021

    English

    In-donor refugee costs in ODA

    Official Development Assistance (ODA) has played a major part in supporting the costs of the immediate response to this crisis. There is a need to continue to monitor these increasing in-donor costs, to ensure that the credibility of ODA is not called into question.

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