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Publications & Documents


  • 1-April-2021

    English

    Platform on investment and productive transformation in Africa

    Even before the COVID-19 crisis stopped the continent’s economic growth in its tracks, Africa was facing a deficit in domestic and foreign productive investment. Levels were too low to either match the needs of a fast growing, increasingly urban, working-age population, or improve the insertion of the continent in the global economy.

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  • 31-March-2021

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Belgium 2021

    Belgium has made progress in decoupling several environmental pressures from economic growth, in improving wastewater treatment and in expanding protected areas. Regions have achieved high levels of recovery and recycling, and have pioneered circular economy policies. However, further efforts are needed to progress towards carbon neutrality, reduce air and water pollution, reverse biodiversity loss and consolidate results of circular economy initiatives. Strengthening co‑ordination between the federal government and the regions, and among the regions, as well as enhancing policy coherence will be key factors of progress. As the COVID-19 emergency passes, recovery efforts should focus on putting the country back on track to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. Investing in low-carbon and natural infrastructure, promoting circular economy, strengthening carbon prices and phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies should be priorities. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Belgium. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on biodiversity and waste, materials management and the circular economy.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    Middle East and North Africa Investment Policy Perspectives

    Middle East and North Africa Investment Policy Perspectives highlights the considerable progress in investment policies made by the region’s governments over the past decade. Yet, the reform momentum needs to be sustained and deepened for the benefits of investment to be shared with society at large and for growth to be sustainable, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global economic upheaval. The publication takes stock of investment policy trends and reforms in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, the Palestinian Authority, and Tunisia, and draws out common challenges, offering suggestions of reform priorities. It considers several dimensions of the policy framework that affect the investment climate and places strong emphasis on how foreign investment can help economies of the region improve their citizens’ lives. The publication serves as reference point, informing policymakers on specific areas as they continue work on leveraging investment to advance inclusive and sustainable growth.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    SIGI 2021 Regional Report for Southeast Asia

    Achieving gender equality and tackling discriminatory laws, social norms and practices set a direct path toward a more inclusive economy and society. The SIGI 2021 Regional Report for Southeast Asia provides new evidence-based analysis on the setbacks and progress in achieving gender equality between 2014 and 2019 in 11 countries. The report uncovers the discrimination women face within social institutions in various dimensions; in the family and household context, in relation to physical integrity and access to productive and financial resources, as well within the political and civil spheres. The SIGI 2021 Regional Report for Southeast Asia explores the interaction between women’s empowerment and discriminatory social institutions by looking specifically at four core areas – health, education, the economic dimension and decision making. It also unveils the cost of discriminatory social institutions for Southeast Asian countries and the socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 crisis for women and girls. Building on the regional analysis of how discriminatory social institutions continue to hinder efforts toward SDG 5, the report provides a set of policy recommendations to enhance governments’ efforts to deliver on their gender equality commitments by 2030.
  • 29-March-2021

    English

    Conflict Networks in North and West Africa

    Conflicts in North and West Africa have become more violent and widespread than in the past. They have also become more difficult to resolve due to the complex relationships between a growing number of belligerents with diverging agendas. Building on a dataset of more than 36 000 violent events over a 23‑year period and three case studies (Lake Chad, Central Sahel and Libya), this report maps conflict networks and the evolution of rivalries and alliances in 21 North and West African countries. It applies an innovative approach, Dynamic Social Network Analysis, to explain the types and evolution of relationships across actors in conflict. Finally, the report analyses the impact of military interventions on the re‑composition of violent groups and the shifting nature of insecurity. This new analysis, based on temporal and spatial approaches contributes to the creation of strategies that will ensure long‑term political stability and serves as a reminder that there is a need for co‑ordinated regional approaches and place‑based policies.
  • 26-March-2021

    English

    Youth aspirations and the reality of jobs in Africa

    The gap between youth aspirations and the reality of the labour markets in Africa is large. Career aspirations of young Africans have little in common with current and projected labour demand in the region, making it unlikely that they will go through a smooth school to work transition. Evidence from ten African countries shows that what youth in these countries value most is job security, such as work in the public sector. Agriculture-related work or medium-skilled jobs in manufacturing are the least attractive for young Africans. Policies can help address the misalignment between youth employment preferences and employment opportunities. A two-pronged approach is recommended: i) helping young people shape career aspirations that are realistic and that can fit with the world they will be entering, and ii) improving the quality of jobs with due regard to the job conditions that matter for young people.
  • 25-March-2021

    English

    How Was Life? Volume II - New Perspectives on Well-being and Global Inequality since 1820

    How was life in 1820, and how has it changed since then? This question, which was at the core of How Was Life? Global Well-being since 1820, published by the OECD in 2014, is addressed by this second volume based on a broader perspective. How Was Life? New Perspectives on Well-being and Global Inequality since 1820, presents new estimates of working hours, biodiversity loss, social spending and GDP (accounting for the 2011 round on purchasing power parities) as well as measures of inequalities in wealth, longevity and educational attainment, gender disparities and extreme poverty. A final chapter synthesises the historical evidence included both in the current and previous volume of How Was Life? through composite measures of the average well-being performance of each country, and of different within-country inequality measures. As was the case for the previous volume, this book combines both a historical and a global perspective, presenting estimates since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 world regions. While this evidence sometimes relies on partial and limited evidence, each chapter in this book assesses the quality of the data used and identifies areas for further historical research. This second volume of How Was Life? is the product of collaboration between the OECD and the OECD Development Centre, on one side, and a group of economic historians gathered around the CLIO-INFRA and Maddison projects, on the other. The historical evidence included in the report is organised around dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its report How’s Life?
  • 24-March-2021

    English

    Infrastructure finance by bilateral and multilateral development partners

    Infrastructure — such as water and sanitation, transport, energy and communications — is fundamental for economic growth, poverty reduction and human development.

  • 18-March-2021

    English

    Statistics on resource flows to developing countries

    See the latest OECD statistics that show how much aid donor country governments are giving, and to whom. How much goes to the poorest countries? How much to multilateral organisations like the United Nations? Which sectors get the most aid - economic infrastructure or social programmes? These statistics show the first evidence of scaling up aid as promised by donors recently.

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  • 18-March-2021

    English

    Monitoring, evaluation and learning for climate risk management

    This working paper focuses on the role of monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) for promoting effective climate risk management. It aims to introduce a conceptual framework that governments and development co-operation providers can draw on when developing MEL frameworks for their interventions on climate risk management. The paper also presents existing methods and tools to address the technical challenges to developing such MEL frameworks. Further, it provides examples of good practice for adjusting or updating existing MEL frameworks in support of climate risk management. It contributes to the project Strengthening Climate Resilience: Guidance for Governments and Development Co-operation of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
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