Country ownership

Country ownership highlights the role of individual countries in determining their own development pathways and within that, their response to global challenges including climate change.

Specific vulnerabilities and the experience of known and tested approaches unique to a country should guide efforts by the government and those supported by development co-operation to strengthen climate resilience.

Inclusive approaches

Inclusive approaches play a role in ensuring that efforts to strengthen climate resilience of one group or country will not compromise that of another.

People marginalised due to their gender, race, age, (dis)ability, or other socio-demographic or geographical factors are often more vulnerable to climate risks. The efforts must target the needs of the most vulnerable, while associated benefits must be equitably shared across stakeholder groups.

Environmental & social sustainability

Environment and social sustainability emphasises the importance of protecting, restoring and sustainably managing the natural environment. Working with nature can contribute to climate resilience, as exemplified by the growing application of nature-based solutions.

A focus on social sustainability and well-being benefits for people is also crucial for seizing opportunities to pursue climate-resilient development pathways.

Cite this content as: OECD (2021), Strengthening Climate Resilience: Guidance for Governments and Development Co-operation, OECD Publishing, Paris,