Gender Inclusive Competition Policy and the OECD Toolkit


Publication date: 7 September 2023


Access the Toolkit: 

English · French · Spanish · German

Download the Checklist: 

printable pdf, A4

English · French · German · Greek · Hebrew · Italian · Korean · Portuguese 

Russian · Spanish · Ukrainian


What has competition got to do with gender? Competition authorities play a crucial role in shaping fair and thriving markets. However, the connection between competition and gender is often overlooked.

The OECD Gender Inclusive Competition Toolkit equips competition authorities with the knowledge and tools necessary to incorporate gender considerations into their work. It offers an evidence-based approach, going beyond theory to provide concrete recommendations that can enhance the accuracy of analysis, facilitate cartel investigations and optimise advocacy efforts.

It also provides specific actions to implement and practical tips on how to apply a gender lens to:

  • Market definition and competitive effects analysis
  • Data collection and surveys
  • Remedies, such as in merger review
  • Cartels and collusion, including investigations
  • Compliance and Advocacy amongst other areas

By incorporating this Toolkit into their day-to-day operations, competition authorities can contribute even more to the advancement of fair and efficient markets that benefit individuals of all genders.

More resources

The Toolkit contains a Gender Inclusive Competition Checklist with 10 ways to apply a gender lens to competition policy.


Download the checklist (A4, pdf):
English l French l German l Greek Hebrew l Italian l Korean PortugueseRussianSpanish l Ukrainian

‌These key insights list some of findings and benefits of applying a gender lens to the various aspects of competition. 

Read the key insights (English, pdf)

This presentation contains key figures in the Toolkit and can be used to amplify its dissemination.

Check out some key figures

Developing evidence in gender inclusive competition policy

The fight for gender equality is one of the defining challenges of our age. While progress has been made in many areas, the relationship between gender and competition remained largely unexplored until 2018, when the OECD began to explore whether a gender lens might in fact help deliver a more effective competition policy. 

This was the beginning of the OECD Gender Inclusive Competition Policy project, launched with the support of the Canadian Government and in particular the Canadian Competition Bureau.

The project aimed at developing guidance for competition agencies in this area by: 

  • Generating new evidence
  • Informing the debate and encouraging other researchers to pick up the topic
  • Help develop practical guidance for authorities on how to develop a more gender inclusive competition policy (The Toolkit)

In September 2020, the OECD adressed a call for research proposals to academia, private practice, competition agencies, regulators, consultancies or the wider policy world looking for new evidence and help develop guidance on how to develop a more gender inclusive competition policy.

In February 2021, an online workshop took place to discuss the 61 proposals received from 28 different countriesSeven projects were selected to explore cartel behaviour, prioritisation, market definition and public interest considerations. These were presented during an open online conference in October 2021.



Paper #1 Gender differences in surveys for market definition and merger analysis l Presentation with key findings

by Oxera 

Paper #2 Gender considerations in the analysis of market definition and competitive effects: A practical framework and illustrative example l Presentation with key findings
by L. Pinheiro, A.C. Faye, M. Ginn, J.Y. Lehmann and J. Posch

Paper #3 Cartel behaviour and boys’ club dynamics: French cartel practice through a gender lens Presentation with key findings
by C. Abate and A. Brunelle

Paper #4 Gender bias in cartel engagement  l Presentation with key findings
by J.R. Borrell, C.Garcia, J.L. Jimenez and J.M.Ordonez-de-Haro 

Paper #5 Gender and collusion  l Presentation with key findings
by J. Haucap, C. Heldman and H. A. Rau

Paper #6 Prioritising gendered public interest considerations  l Presentation with key findings
by B. Mkatshwa, M. Tshabalala and S. Phala

Paper #7 Incorporating Gender as a Prioritization Principle and Project Selection Criterion in Competition Agencies  l Presentation with key findings
by W. Kovacic

Project timeline

October 2020 - Call for proposals with  61 responses received from 28 different countries 

25 Feb 2021 - Open workshop to discuss proposals received

Watch on replay l View the agenda

30 March 2021 - A briefing meeting is held for progress update

Watch the replay  l  View the agenda 

May 2021 - Deadline for submission of selected expert research papers

7 Oct 2021 - A virtual public event presented the seven research papers

Watch on replay l View the agenda

Q3 2021 onwards - Development of the toolkit for competition authorities

September 2023 - Release of the OECD Gender Inclusive Competition Toolkit (available in English, French, Spanish and German) 



For more information don't hesitate to contact:

Lynn Robertson

Lynn Robertson


Carolina Abate

More links and literature

A new toolkit for gender-inclusive competition law Link to an external site icon Vanessa van Weelden et al, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, September 2023

Promoting Effective Entry and Participation of Women Entrepreneurs in thee South African Economy Link to an external site icon Competition Commission South Africa, June 2023

Shaping the "she-covery": Using gender inclusive competition policy to build back better Link to an external site icon Blog by Chris Pike, OECD on the Level, August 2020

Competition Policy and Gender Link to an external site icon Article by Chris Pike & Estefania Santacreu-Vasut, Concurrences. November 2019

Gender inequality, market distortion and consumer welfare: A call to action for competition authorities Link to an external site icon‌ Article by Sarah Long, Journal of European Competition Law & Practice, May 2019

2019 OECD Conference on Gender Equality in Business, Materials and webcast

Gender and competition: 2018 OECD Global Forum on Competition, Session 2, Materials and webcast

Gender, competition policy and the GUDP (Grossly Undervalued Domestic Product) Link to an external site icon‌ Intervention by Sarah Long at the Chillin Competition Conference, November 2018

Competition policy and gender, OECD Background paper on Competition Policy and Gender, by Chris Pike & Estefania Santacreu-Vasut, September 2018

The effects of market power on women and people of color Link to an external site icon by Nell Abernathy, presentation to the Congressional Antitrust Caucus, March 2018

What’s gender got to do with competition policy,‌ Blog by Chris Pike, OECD on the Level, March 2018

How monopolies make gender inequality worse Link to an external site icon‌ Article by Sally Hubbard, Forbes magazine, December 2017


OECD gender data portal

OECD competition home page

Join our LinkedIn group to see
shared materials on the topic




Second online conference presenting selected research papers (October 2021)

Briefing meeting on project progress (March 2021)

First online conference presenting proposals received (February 2021)

Estefania Santacreu-Vasut and Chris Pike on their joint 2018 background paper

Leila Wright on promising avenues for action and research

Matthew Boswell on steps taken by the Government of Canada to promote gender equality


Preview of 2018 Global Forum session by Chris Pike


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