Digital Economy, Innovation and Competition


Digitalisation has reshaped competitive dynamics in the economy, creating new markets and transforming existing ones. This presents a multifaceted challenge for competition authorities and policymakers. They must grapple with uncertainty in rapidly evolving markets, address new forms of misconduct, and examine markets whose precise boundaries are unclear. At the same time, mounting concerns about conduct in digital markets and indicators of growing market power have led to calls for new competition policy tools and the more active use of existing ones.

G7 inventory of new rules for digital markets

G7 inventory of new rules for digital markets

Analytical note

08/11/2023 - Prepared for the G7 Joint Competition Policy Makers and Enforcers Summit, this inventory gathers proposed or enacted legislative reforms that have been developed to address digital competition issues in G7 and other jurisdictions. It proposes an objective comparison of “ex ante” regulations in digital markets, based on their status, scope, institutional setting and content. It encompasses detailed information on legislative reforms captured under 9 categories and 44 sub-categories of variables, using a fixed frame that could be applied to all current and future reforms. 

An analytical note accompanies the inventory and draws some high-level findings, highlighting common patterns and points of convergence and divergence across jurisdictions.

The 2023 inventory and analytical note produced by the OECD were submitted to the G7 Joint Competition Policy Makers and Enforcers Summit, which took place on 08 November 2023 in Tokyo in the framework of Japan’s G7 presidency.


Download the inventory


Read the accompanying analytical note  

Press release on the G7 Summit by Japan's Fair Trade Commission

G7 Compendium of approaches to improving competition in digital markets 

The first version of the inventory and accompanying note were issued in the framework of Germany’s G7 presidency in October 2022.

Access: 2022 Inventory l 2022 Analytical Note l Press release by Bundeskartellamt l Compedium of approaches to improving competition in digital markets

OECD Handbook on Competition Policy in the Digital Age

OECD handbook on competition policy in the digital age (cover)‌23 February 2022 -  Launched during the 2022 Competition Open Day, the OECD Handbook on Competition Policy in the Digital Age provides a new resource for competition authorities, policymakers, researchers and anyone else interested in digital competition policy. It highlights the key messages from the extensive body of OECD work in this area to date, including anticompetitive conduct, merger control and remedies. The Handbook provides links to all of our digital competition work, making it easier to explore the wealth of background papers, country contributions, and other resources available on over 40 topics. It also contains our views on the road ahead for digital competition policy, including the need for co-ordination among jurisdictions as they transition from diagnosing concerns, to implementing solutions.

Download the Handbook (pdf)


Navigate the handbook online


Download a glossary of digital competition terms


Watch a video about the handbook


More resources

Competition and Innovation, 2023

Theories of Harm for Digital Mergers, 2023

Data Screening Tools for Competition Investigations, 2022

Competition Enforcement and Regulatory Alternatives, 2021  

Competition Issues in News Media and Digital Platforms, 2021 

Data Portability, Interoperability and Competition, 2021 

Ex Ante Regulation and Competition in Digital markets, 2021 

The Concept of Potential Competition, 2021

, 2020

Digital Evidence Gathering in Cartel Investigations, Latin American and Caribbean Competition Forum, 2020

Line of Business Restrictions as a Solution to Competition Concerns, 2020

, 2020

, 2020

, 2020

, 2020

, 2020

Merger control in dynamic markets, 2020

Competition and disruptive innovation in financial markets, 2019

Vertical Mergers in the Technology, Media and Telecom Sector, 2019

, 2019

Competition for-the-market, 2019

Licensing of IP Rights and Competition Law, 2019

Practical Approaches to Assessing Digital Platform Markets for Competition Law Enforcement, Latin American and Caribbean Competition Forum, 2019

, 2019

Personalised Pricing in the Digital Era, 2018 

Financial markets, insurance and pensions: Digitalisation and Finance, 2018

Blockchain and Competition Policy, 2018

Rethinking Antitrust Tools for Multi-Sided Platforms, 2018

Implications of E-commerce for Competition Policy, 2018

Consumer-facing remedies, 2018

Non-price effects of mergers, 2018

Taxi, ride-sourcing and ride-sharing services, 2018

Rethinking Antitrust Tools for Multi-Sided Platforms, 2018

Algorithms and collusion, 2017

Radical Innovation in the Electricity Sector, 2017

Price discrimination and competition, 2016

Geographic market definition across national borders, 2016

Big Data: Briging competition policy to the digital era, 2016

Disruptive innovation in land transport, 2016

Disruptive innovation in legal services, 2016

Competition and Across Platform Parity Agreements, 2015

Disruptive innovation in financial markets, 2015

Disruptive innovation in competition law enforcement, 2015

Disruptive innovations and their effect on competition, 2015

Vertical restraints for on-line sales, 2013

The digital economy, 2012 



OECD Competition Open Day, 2023

OECD Competition Open Day, 2022

OECD Competition Open Day, 2021

OECD Competition Open Day, 2020

Competition and the Digital Economy, 2019


Digitalisation-and-competition video playlist

Video Playlist: Competition and digitalisation


Digital challenge for competition policy explained in 9 minutes

Replay of keynote panel on Competition in the
Digital Age - 2020 OECD Competition Open Day



Rising to the challenge of competition enforcement in digital markets,  February 2022

Is Competition Policy the Right Response to the Crisis of Journalism?, CPI Column, February 2022

Does AI have a dark side when it comes to competition?, August 2021

Data-driven Platform Envelopment with Privacy-Policy Tying, February 2021

Digital Ecosystems – a New Economic Paradigm?, January 2021

‘How tech rolls’: Potential competition and ‘reverse’ killer acquisitions, November 2020

Are digital markets bringing new challenges in abuse of dominance cases?, November 2020

Acquisition Killed the Innovation Star?, October 2020

How can competition law tackle misconduct in digital markets?, October 2020

BigTech vs BigBang: Competition in Financial Services, January 2020

Innovation and Competition in Financial Markets, January 2020

Charting the way forward for digital competition policy, December 2019

Do competition authorities need to transform themselves in a digitally transformed world?, August 2018

Algorithms and competition: Friends or Foes, CPI Chronicle, Aug 2017

New energy in the electricity sector, May 2017

The end of the bargain? And should we worry?, Nov 2016

Disruptive innovation in legal services - promising for consumers and challenging for regulators, June 2016

Disruptive innovation in Latin America and the Caribbean, April 2016


Other documents 

‌Ex Ante Regulation and Competition
in Digital Markets
, 2021


Competition Issues concerning
News Media and Digital Platforms
, 2021

competition enforcement regulatory alternatives 2021 paper cover

Competition Enforcement and
Regulatory Alternatives
, 2021


Data Portability, Interoperability and
Digital Platform Competition
, 2021

note cover

The Concept of Potential
, 2021

Competition in Digital Advertising Markets Cover‌ 

Competition in Digital
Advertising markets
, 2020


AI in Business and Finance, 2021

Rethinking Antitrust Tools for
Multi-Sided Platforms
, 2018


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