ODA eligibility database


Not ODA-eligible


Sector or themePeace and security: participation in international peacekeeping operations
Provider countryNATO
Recipient countryCentral-East Mediterranean sea
Implementing agencyHellenic Air Force General
Budget (USD x 1000)530
Purpose code15230 Participation in international peacekeeping operations

  • Operation Active Endeavour (2001-2016) was the first of its kind NATO Article 5 operation, enshrining the principle of collective defence. It was invoked for the first time after the terrorist attacks against the United States of 11 September 2001. It aimed to demonstrate NATO's solidarity and monitored shipping in the Mediterranean to help deter, defend, disrupt and protect against terrorist activity. NATO forces hailed over 100,000 merchant vessels and boarded some 155 suspect ships. By conducting these maritime operations against terrorist activity, NATO’s presence in these waters benefited all shipping travelling through the Straits by improving perceptions of security. The operation was succeeded in 2016 by maritime security operation Sea Guardian. The Sea Guardian currently performs three Maritime Security Operations tasks in the Mediterranean: support to Maritime Situational Awareness, support maritime Counter-Terrorism and contribute to maritime security capacity building.
  • NATO helped to keep seas safe, protect shipping and control suspect vessels. Moreover, this operation also enabled NATO to strengthen its relations with partner countries, especially those participating in the Alliance’s Mediterranean Dialogue. Greece contributed directly to the operation with naval assets. Hellenic Air Force employed in operation a C-130 Hercules military transport aircraft equipped with an Automatic Identification System for one sortie per month under NATO tactical control and four sorties per month under national tactical control. The tasks included: supporting maritime situational awareness, support to maritime counter-terrorism, contributing to maritime security capacity building.
  • The experience that NATO accrued in Active Endeavour has given the Alliance unparalleled expertise in the deterrence of maritime terrorist activity in the Mediterranean Sea. This expertise is relevant to wider international efforts to combat terrorism, as well as enhanced cooperation with non-NATO countries and civilian agencies.
  • This activity is deemed not ODA-eligible as it contributes to an armed response to terrorism (activities to combat terrorism through kinetic activities and the use of force, whether by military of civilian police are not ODA-eligible, see paragraph 117). The activity does not meet the primary purpose for ODA, it seems to be primarily beneficial for the security interests of NATO members rather than for developing countries (development co-operation should not be used as a vehicle to promote the organisation’s own security interests, see box 2 of the Reporting Directives). Only projects concerned with preventing violent extremism through a non-coercive, intentional and targeted use of development assistance approaches aiming at providing positive alternatives to those most at risk of violent extremism in partner countries and countering the narrative of violent extremism that incites support for violence are ODA-eligible (paragraph 116).