Environment and development

OECD Statistics on External Development Finance Targeting Environmental Objectives Including the Rio Conventions



The OECD statistics monitor external development finance in support of environmental objectives, including the objectives of the Rio conventions on biodiversity, climate change and desertification. DAC members shall indicate if the activities reported to the Creditor Reporting System target environmental objectives using a set of five "policy markers":

In 1992, at the Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro, three environmental conventions were established: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).

Country parties committed to assist developing countries in the implementation of the Rio Conventions. The OECD-DAC Statistical system monitors the streamlining of the objectives of the Rio conventions and of environmental objectives in development co-operation activities through a set of four Rio markers on bio-diversity, climate change adaptation, climate change mitigation and desertification and one policy marker on aid to environment. .

A scoring system of three values is used, in which development co-operation activities are “marked” as targeting the environment or the Rio Conventions as the “principal" objective or a “significant" objective, or as not targeting the objective.

Five statistical policy markers exist to monitor external development finance for environmental purposes within the OECD/DAC, these are:

The “Environment” marker (introduced in 1992)

Four Rio markers covering:

  • Biodiversity (introduced in 1998)
  • Climate Change Adaptation (introduced in 2010)
  • Climate Change Mitigation (introduced in 1998)
  • Desertification (introduced in 1998)

The Rio markers are applicable to Official Development Assistance (ODA) and recently also to other official flows (OOF) (non-concessional developmental flows, excluding export credits) starting from 2010.

Statistical analysis and data


Aid targeting global environmental objectives data visualisation

  • Biodiversity, desertification and environment-related aid
  • Aid by objective (principal and significant) and financial instrument
  • Aid by top sectors, recipients and providers


Access the activity-level database

For data use and interpretation please make sure you consult our user guide. Definitions are also available below on this page.

Access data by recipient, by sector and at activity level by querying the on-line CRS database for Rio markers and environment marker.

For more information on interpreting the data, please see our Frequently Asked Questions.

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Additional guidelines

OECD DAC Rio Markers for Climate: Handbook provides more information on the DAC’s statistical markers on climate change mitigation and adaptation


Further reading

Climate finance and the USD 100 billion goal

Official development assistance



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