Forced displacement, including refugees fleeing across borders, is a global phenomenon. As of end 2020, 82.4 million people had been forced to flee their homes world-wide, according to UNHCR. Despite COVID-related movement restrictions and pleas from the international community for a ceasefire that would facilitate the COVID-19 response, displacement continued to occur - and to grow. 1 in every 95 people in the world is forcibly displaced. In 2018, the international community adopted the Global Compact on Refugees. It outlines arrangements for more predictable and equitable sharing of burdens and responsibilities when it comes to the word’s refugees.
How can we adapt development strategy and financing to the reality of forced displacement?
OECD work focuses on assessing current development practices in forced displacement contexts, and on defining how development finance can best be used to support forcibly displaced people around the world. This includes the application of the Humanitarian-Development-Peace (HDP) Nexus in refugee situations and providing related policy guidance.
INCAF Common Position on supporting comprehensive responses in refugee situations
In December 2019, the International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF) developed a common position on supporting comprehensive response in refugee situations.
Financing for refugee situations constituted 12.3% of all global Official Development Assistance (ODA) in 2018-19
In-donor refugee costs
In 2017, the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) agreed to clarify the reporting directives for assessing what may be included or not in ODA – and provide its members with a blueprint to use when accounting for the costs of assisting refugees in donor countries.
Seven good practice principles for financing for refugee situations
Refugee situations are complex, context-specific and bring together large movements of people as well as significant vulnerabilities and fragilities. Financing plays an important role in refugee responses, but is not yet fit-for-purpose to respond to the challenges and opportunities that patterns of displacement present. The OECD development policy paper Financing for Refugee Situations proposes seven good practice principles for adapting financing to the reality of refugee situations, based on global trends and case studies in Central African Republic, Colombia, Lebanon and Uganda:
Financing refugee-hosting contexts
Official Development Assistance (ODA) plays a key role in ensuring that no one is left behind on the path toward sustainable development – and refugees are no exception. According to UNHCR, 85% of refugees are hosted in developing countries. The Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) outlines arrangements for a more predictable and equitable sharing of burdens and responsibilities when it comes to protecting and supporting the world’s refugees. In order to inform how the international community can utilize funding more effectively to meet these responsibilities, it is essential to consider how ODA is spent in these settings – and to outline priorities to guide donor support and engagement going forward.
ODA 2018-19 to programmes & projects supporting refugees & their host communities
Ongoing projects on forced displacement in partnership with UNHCR and others UNHCR
The OECD undertakes a set of policy guidance and research initiatives on forced displacement, in partnership with UNHCR and others. Current ongoing projects include the regularisation of data collection on financing for refugee situations, “enhancing self-reliance through social protection in situations of forced displacement”, and the application of the Humanitarian-Development-Peace Nexus principles in situations of forced displacement.
Related OECD work