In 1996, OECD countries launched their harmful tax practices initiative aimed at combating international tax evasion by promoting transparency and exchange of information both within and outside the OECD. The 2000 OECD report, "Towards Global Tax Co-operation", included a list of 35 jurisdictions that were found to meet the tax haven criteria set out in an earlier report issued in 1998. In the 2000 Report, a process was also established whereby countries found to meet the tax haven criteria could commit to improve transparency and establish effective exchange of information for tax purposes and thus avoid being identified as unco-operative tax havens. A small number of jurisdictions (Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Cyprus, Malta, Mauritius and San Marino) made a political commitment to improve transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes before the publication of the 2000 Report, and were not included in the original list, even if they had been found to meet the tax haven criteria.
Today, 35 jurisdictions have made commitments to implement the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes and are considered co-operative jurisdictions by the OECD's Committee on Fiscal Affairs. The OECD has determined that three other jurisdictions - Barbados, Maldives, and Tonga - identified in the 2000 Progress Report as tax havens should not be included in the List of Unco-operative Tax Havens.
There are still 3 jurisdictions - Andorra, Liechtenstein and Monaco - that have not made commitments to the principles of transparency and exchange of information and therefore have been identified by the OECD's Committee on Fiscal Affairs as unco-operative tax havens. Click here to find the List of Unco-operative Tax Havens.