Gros plan sur la relance verte

Gros plan sur les politiques agricoles

Le point sur les mesures de relance verte

Dans quelle mesure notre relance sera-t-elle durable ?

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ASSURER DES EMPLOIS VERTS ET LA CROISSANCE

RECONSTRUIRE SUR DE MEILLEURES BASES

ACCÉLÉRER LA TRANSITION BAS CARBONE

RENFORCER LA PROTECTION DE LA BIODIVERSITÉ

AMÉLIORER LA SANTÉ ENVIRONNEMENTALE

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Comment peut-on accélérer la transition vers une économie bas carbone ?

Une occasion de transformer le secteur du pétrole et du gaz

Les secteurs verts offrent des perspectives de création d'emploi

Les secteurs verts offrent des perspectives de création d'emploi

Les infrastructures durables contribuent à réduire les émissions

Les infrastructures durables contribuent à réduire les émissions

Suivre le progrès grâce à des données pertinentes, comparables et à jour

Comment mettre la finance au service d'infrastructures vertes ?

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05/07/2021
Fruit de la collaboration entre l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) et l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO), les Perspectives agricoles de l'OCDE et de la FAO 2021‑2030 s’appuient aussi sur des contributions des pays membres et d’organisations internationales spécialisées dans les produits de base. Elles contiennent une évaluation consensuelle de ce que pourrait être l’évolution, dans les dix ans à venir, des marchés nationaux, régionaux et mondiaux des produits agricoles, halieutiques et aquacoles et des biocarburants, et servent de référence à des analyses prospectives et à la planification de l’action publique.Les Perspectives agricoles de l'OCDE et de la FAO 2021‑2030 présentent les tendances régissant les marchés agricoles pour les dix prochaines années. Des progrès sont attendus sur de nombreux fronts importants, mais pour mener à bien le Programme à l’horizon 2030 et atteindre les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD), le secteur agricole devra mettre en place des actions concertées et de nouvelles améliorations.Des informations supplémentaires sont fournies à l’adresse suivante : www.agri-outlook.org.
29/06/2021
Many Emerging Asian countries have been refining macroprudential policies, particularly since the Global Financial Crisis. For instance, they have developed policies targeting housing markets and broadly transposed the Basel III requirements into their national legislation. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers now need to identify emerging vulnerabilities and their associated financial stability risks and respond with the appropriate macroprudential tools.This publication provides a detailed overview of the current macroprudential policy situation in Emerging Asian countries and explores how the macroprudential policy toolkit has evolved. The report discusses some of the most pressing challenges to financial stability, including the interaction of macroprudential policy with other policies. It also devotes special attention to macroprudential policies for emerging priorities, such as achieving green goals and updating regulatory frameworks to reflect ongoing Fintech developments. Climate change will indeed create new challenges in financial markets, while Fintech developments bring about many economic opportunities and deepen financial systems, but present a variety of novel risks requiring rapid policy responses.
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29/06/2021
This policy paper catalogues tools and techniques used by public actors such as national development banks and green investment banks to mitigate project-level risks and attract private investment in infrastructure. The paper updates the dataset underlying the 2018 "Progress Update on Approaches to Mobilising Institutional Investment for Sustainable Infrastructure", to provide an expanded typology of de-risking instruments and highlight several novel approaches for mobilising institutional investment. The analysis provides development banks and other public financial institutions a nuanced view of options for targeted mobilisation efforts.
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25/06/2021
National Urban Policy (NUP) is a key instrument to achieve sustainable urban development in a shared responsibility across countries, regions and cities. The scale and urgency of the current urban challenges has given prominence to NUPs. The COVID-19 crisis has amplified the potential of NUPs in shaping more resilient, green and inclusive cities as part of countries recovery packages.This report reviews NUPs of 162 countries across the globe. Building on the first edition launched in 2018, the report serves as a critical source of information and analysis for policymakers and urban professionals, as it establishes the foundation for understanding how and in what forms NUPs have been developed, implemented and monitored globally. The overarching objective of the report is to assist national governments in advancing their NUP processes, especially in creating a stronger link between NUPs and urban-related global agendas, such as the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development and the New Urban Agenda, and in mainstreaming climate action into NUPs. The report is a co-creation of the OECD, UN-Habitat and Cities Alliance, as a key outcome of the National Urban Policy Programme, a global partnership launched in 2016 at the Habitat III Conference.
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22/06/2021
Ce rapport annuel suit et évalue l’évolution des politiques agricoles dans 54 pays : il couvre les 38 pays de l’OCDE, les cinq états de l’Union européenne qui ne sont pas membres de l’OCDE, et 11 économies émergentes. Ce rapport est une source unique d’information sur le soutien actuel à l’agriculture. Il utilise un système cohérent de mesure et de classification du soutien agricole – les estimations du soutien aux producteurs et aux consommateurs (ESP et ESC), et les indicateurs connexes. Cette édition met l’accent sur les réponses apportées par les pouvoirs publics à la pandémie de COVID-19. Elle est assortie d’une analyse des incidences du soutien agricole sur la performance des systèmes alimentaires.
16/06/2021
La présente synthèse contient une analyse des effets à long terme de la pandémie de COVID 19 et des mesures publiques de relance économique adoptées pour y faire face sur l’environnement. À l’aide de modélisations à grande échelle, il étudie les impacts des chocs sectoriels et régionaux sur l’économie jusqu’en 2040. Elle fait le lien entre des chocs sectoriels et régionaux sur l’économie jusqu’en 2040 et une série de pressions sur l’environnement, dont les émissions de gaz à effet de serre ou de polluants atmosphériques, l’utilisation de matières premières et les changements d’affectation des terres.. La réduction à court terme des pressions environnementales est notable : en 2020, les émissions de gaz à effet de serre et de polluants atmosphériques liées à l’énergie ont baissé de 7 % environ. Les pressions en rapport avec l’agriculture ont enregistré un recul plus modeste cette même année. Le recul de l’utilisation de minerais non métalliques, dont les matériaux de construction, a atteint un pourcentage à deux chiffres. D’après les projections, les émissions remonteront à partir de 2021 et se rapprocheront progressivement des niveaux de référence antérieures au COVID, les taux de croissance rattrapant tout leur retard. Cependant, à long terme, un effet à la baisse - potentiellement permanent - sur le niveau des pressions environnementales est chiffré entre 1 et 3 %.
08/06/2021
Natural hazard-induced disasters (NHID), such as floods, droughts, severe storms, and animal pests and diseases have significant, widespread and long-lasting impacts on agricultural sectors around the world. With climate change set to amplify many of these impacts, a “business-as-usual” approach to disaster risk management in agriculture cannot continue if we are to meet the challenges of agricultural productivity and sustainability growth, and sustainable development. Drawing from seven case studies – Chile, Italy, Japan, Namibia, New Zealand, Turkey and the United States – this joint OECD-FAO report argues for a new approach to building resilience to NHID in agriculture. It explores the policy measures, governance arrangements, on-farm strategies and other initiatives that countries are using to increase agricultural resilience to NHID, highlighting emerging good practices. It offers concrete recommendations on what more needs to be done to shift from coping with the impacts of disasters, to an ex ante approach that focuses on preventing and mitigating the impacts of disasters, helping the sector be better prepared to respond to disasters, and to adapt and transform in order to be better positioned for future disasters.
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03/06/2021
La pandémie du COVID 19 a mis en exergue les défis pressants liés à l’eau et à l’assainissement dans les villes africaines, soulignant et creusant les inégalités pour les 56 % de la population urbaine vivant dans des zones d’habitats informels et comptant sur des toilettes partagées et des points d’eau publics pour le lavage des mains. Avant la pandémie, les pays et les villes du continent africain étaient déjà confrontés à d’importants problèmes liés à l’eau, avec 418 millions de personnes n’ayant pas d’accès à l’approvisionnement en eau en Afrique subsaharienne, et 717 millions à l’assainissement, en plus des inondations, sécheresses et problèmes de pollution concomitants. Les mégatendances liées au changement climatique, à l’urbanisation et aux changements démographiques exacerberont davantage les pressions sur les ressources en eau et nécessitent une action urgente pour que les villes africaines se préparent à l’avenir. En s’appuyant sur une enquête menée dans 36 villes de toutes tailles en Afrique, ce rapport fournit une analyse régionale, notamment en matière d’allocation des rôles et des responsabilités dans la gestion de l’eau, d’efficacité des cadres institutionnels, politiques et réglementaires, ainsi que des principaux déficits de gouvernance à combler afin de renforcer la capacité des villes à assurer la sécurité hydrique sur le continent africain.
22/05/2021
This new web format for Environment at a Glance Indicators provides real-time interactive on-line access to the latest comparable OECD-country data on the environment from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance in countries and to track the course towards sustainable development. The web version allows users to play with the data and graphics, download and share them, and consult and download thematic web-books. These indicators provide key messages on major environmental trends in areas such as climate change, biodiversity, water resources, air quality, circular economy and ocean resources. They are accompanied by a short Environment at a Glance report that presents a digest of the key messages stemming from the indicators.
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21/05/2021
Gender equality and environmental goals are mutually reinforcing, with slow progress on environmental actions affecting the achievement of gender equality, and vice versa. Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires targeted and coherent actions. However, complementarities and trade-offs between gender equality and environmental sustainability are scarcely documented within the SDG framework. Based on the SDG framework, this report provides an overview of the gender-environment nexus, looking into data and evidence gaps, economic and well-being benefits, and governance and justice aspects. It examines nine environment-related SDGs (2, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 and 15) through a gender-environment lens, using available data, case studies, surveys and other evidence. It shows that women around the world are disproportionately affected by climate change, deforestation, land degradation, desertification, growing water scarcity and inadequate sanitation, with gender inequalities further exacerbated by COVID-19. The report concludes that gender-responsiveness in areas such as land, water, energy and transport management, amongst others, would allow for more sustainable and inclusive economic development, and increased well-being for all. Recognising the multiple dimensions of and interactions between gender equality and the environment, it proposes an integrated policy framework, taking into account both inclusive growth and environmental considerations at local, national and international levels.
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21/05/2021
La présente synthèse contient une analyse des effets à long terme de la pandémie de COVID-19 et des mesures publiques de relance économique adoptées pour y faire face sur l’environnement. Elle fait le lien entre des chocs sectoriels et régionaux sur l’économie jusqu’en 2040 et une série de pressions sur l’environnement, dont les émissions de gaz à effet de serre ou de polluants atmosphériques, l’utilisation de matières premières et les changements d’affectation des terres. La réduction à court terme de ces pressions est notable. Il ressort des projections qu’au fil du rétablissement progressif de l’économie, les émissions augmentent de nouveau, leur progression retrouvant le rythme indiqué par les projections de référence antérieures au COVID. Cependant, on constate un effet à la baisse (potentiellement permanent) sur les niveaux de pressions environnementales de 1 à 3 %, avec des effets plus larges sur les pressions liées aux activités économiques à forte intensité de capital.
21/05/2021
Nature underpins all economic activities and human well-being. It is the world’s most important asset. Yet humanity is destroying biodiversity at an unprecedented rate, posing significant but often overlooked risks to the economy, the financial sector and the well-being of current and future generations. This report provides the latest findings and policy guidance for G7 and other countries in four key areas: measuring and mainstreaming biodiversity; aligning budgetary and fiscal policy with biodiversity; embedding biodiversity in the financial sector; and improving biodiversity outcomes linked to international trade. The report shows how Finance, Economic and Environment Ministries can drive the transformative changes required to halt and reverse the loss of biodiversity.This Policy Paper was prepared as an input document for the United Kingdom Presidency of the G7 in 2021.
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17/05/2021
Over the past decades, governments have gradually adopted more rigorous environmental policies to tackle challenges associated with pressing environmental issues, such as climate change. The ambition of these policies is, however, often tempered by their perceived negative effects on the economy. The empirical evidence in this volume – covering a decade of OECD analysis – shows that environmental policies have had relatively small effects on economic outcomes such as employment, investment, trade and productivity. At the same time, they have been effective at reducing emissions from industry. The policies can however generate winners and losers across firms, industries and regions: while the least productive firms from high-polluting sectors are adversely affected, more productive firms and low-pollution sectors benefit. Environmental policies can be designed and combined with other policies to compensate workers and industries that may lose and to emphasise their positive impacts.
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17/05/2021
The ITF Transport Outlook 2021 provides scenarios for the development of transport demand up to 2050. It also models transport decarbonisation scenarios and their impacts on climate change. Based on this, the ITF Transport Outlook 2021 identifies decisions that policy makers will need to take to ensure a transition to sustainable mobility that is effective as well as equitable. This edition includes a special focus on the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on transport systems, and models potential long-term changes with challenges and opportunities for decarbonisation.
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05/05/2021
Carbon pricing very effectively encourages the shift of production and consumption choices towards low and zero carbon options that is required to limit climate change. Are countries using this tool to its full potential? This report measures the pricing of CO2-emissions from energy use in 44 OECD and G20 countries, covering around 80% of world emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including fuel excise taxes, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. The "carbon pricing score" measures how close the 44 countries, together as well as individually, are to the goal of pricing all energy related carbon emissions at current and forward-looking benchmark values for carbon costs. The report highlights the structure of effective carbon rates across countries and sectors in 2018 and discusses change compared to 2012 and 2015. It also provides an outlook on recent trends in emissions trading in China and the European Union.
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05/05/2021
The COVID-19 crisis has revealed the close relationship between environmental risks and those to the foundations of human well-being – and the cascading effects on the economy and society. It has also highlighted the importance of anticipation and early action. These are also key to integrating climate policy into regional development, albeit on a larger scale. As with COVID-19, the climate challenge is global, but the response needs to build on regional and local actors, natural environments, geographies and infrastructures.The 2021 edition of the OECD Regional Outlook shows that a place-based approach is vital for resilience in the face of both these challenges. It analyses the different territorial impacts of COVID-19 on health and economy, as well as policy responses. The report explores the different territorial implications of moving to net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 whilst adapting to inevitable climate change, and provides fresh analysis of regional data. It provides insights for integrating the climate challenge into multi-level governance, urban and rural development so as to leave no region behind. It highlights the opportunity we have to draw lessons from COVID-19 for a place-based response to the climate challenge.
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19/04/2021
This policy brief presents results and policy insights drawn from the OECD Green Recovery Database. The database shows that while USD 336 billion has been allocated towards environmentally positive measures within COVID-19 recovery packages, this total is almost equally matched by funding channelled to measures categorised as having mixed or negative environmental impacts. Furthermore, the spending allocated to green measures represents only around 17% of total COVID-19 recovery spending announced by governments. The small proportion of green measures implies that overall packages may not deliver the transformational investments needed. The sectoral split of environmental measures also points to missed opportunities. Given these findings, this policy brief concludes with policy steps governments can take to ensure that recovery packages are better aligned with environmental goals.
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01/04/2021
This paper assesses quantitative estimates based on economic modelling studies of the economic and environmental benefits from different forms of international co-ordination on carbon pricing. Forms of international co-ordination include: harmonising carbon prices (e.g. through linking carbon markets), extending the coverage of pricing schemes, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, developing international sectoral agreements, and establishing co-ordination mechanisms to mitigate carbon leakage. All forms of international co-operation on carbon pricing can deliver benefits, both economic (e.g. lower mitigation costs) and/or environmental (e.g. reducing GHG emissions and carbon leakage). Benefits tend to be higher with broader participation of countries, broader coverage of emissions and sectors and more ambitious policy goals. Most, but not all, countries gain economic benefits from international co-operation, and these benefits vary significantly across countries and regions. Complementary measures outside co-operation on carbon pricing (e.g. technology transfers) could ensure that co-operation provides economic benefits for all countries.
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30/03/2021
En dépit des lourdes répercussions de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur le tourisme, la crise que nous traversons offre une occasion de repenser l’avenir de ce secteur. Pour parvenir à une reprise plus verte et plus durable du tourisme, il faut que les pouvoirs publics accordent une plus grande attention aux piliers environnemental et socio-culturel de la durabilité. Cette étude porte sur cinq éléments fondamentaux devant étayer les solutions apportées par les pouvoirs publics, et les meilleures pratiques, qui aideront les destinations touristiques à se reconstruire et à prospérer dans ce contexte radicalement différent dans lequel doit désormais s’inscrire le développement du tourisme. Les solutions recommandées ont pour objectif de : 1) redéfinir le succès du tourisme ; 2) adopter une approche associant les responsables publics, les acteurs du tourisme et les communautés locales ; 3) généraliser les politiques et les pratiques durables ; 4) élaborer des modèles économiques plus durables pour la filière touristique ; et 5) mieux mesurer pour mieux gérer. Ce rapport présente une sélection de neuf études de cas consacrées aux stratégies déployées par les destinations à l’appui d’une reprise durable et inclusive.
24/03/2021
This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in the six countries of the EU Eastern Partnership: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastructure development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.
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