Gros plan sur la relance verte

Coup de projecteur sur les mesures de relance verte

Les dépenses vertes ont augmenté, mais est-ce suffisant pour assurer une reprise durable ?

Dans quelle mesure les derniers budgets sont-ils plus verts ?

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Où va l'argent ?

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Que peuvent-faire les pouvoirs publics ?

ASSURER DES EMPLOIS VERTS ET LA CROISSANCE

RECONSTRUIRE SUR DE MEILLEURES BASES

ACCÉLÉRER LA TRANSITION BAS CARBONE

RENFORCER LA PROTECTION DE LA BIODIVERSITÉ

AMÉLIORER LA SANTÉ ENVIRONNEMENTALE

Un chemin court et sinueux jusqu'à 2030

La pandémie de plastique

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Comment mettre la finance au service d'infrastructures vertes ?

#ActionClimatique

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10/05/2022
Pharmaceutical household waste from expired or unused medicine does not only offer zero therapeutic benefit, but also contributes to environmental pollution when disposed of via improper routes. Medicines discarded in sinks and flushed down toilets enter sewage waters and, if not filtered out, leak into aquatic systems. Disposal of unused or expired medicines via solid household waste can also result in pharmaceutical residues entering the environment if this waste is illegally dumped, or destined for landfills. In addition to environmental risks, unused or expired medicine not only constitutes wasted healthcare resources, but also presents a possible public health risk of accidental or intentional misuse and poisoning if extracted from waste bins. Preventing pharmaceutical household waste and ensuring the effective collection and environmentally sound treatment of unavoidable waste is thus an important policy objective. This report provides an overview of available data on pharmaceutical consumption and disposal practices across OECD countries, reviews existing collection schemes and provides recommendations to best prevent, collect and treat unused or expired medicines in order to avoid their leakage into the environment.
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03/05/2022
Despite years of donor country engagement, developing countries’ efforts to fight climate change and its consequences remain stifled by important capacity gaps. This paper reviews the experience of development co-operation partners in strengthening capacities in this area. It provides an in-depth analysis of official development assistance trends and flows, as well as an overview of the enabling factors, obstacles and good practices. Finally, it suggests ways to overcome a number of technical, political and organisational challenges, and to accelerate capacity development for more effective climate action in partner countries.
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22/04/2022
L’instauration de sociétés durables, équitables et résilientes est le défi qui se pose à l’humanité au XXIe siècle. Pour réaliser cette ambition, la communauté internationale du développement a besoin d’un cadre de référence commun, universel, pour travailler en plus étroite coopération. Les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) répondent manifestement à ce besoin, mais des problèmes d’ordre technique, politique et structurel empêchent les fournisseurs de coopération pour le développement de les utiliser comme cadre de résultats commun.S'appuyant sur sept études de cas, cette publication identifie deux facteurs déterminants et un évènement majeur qui peuvent aider à surmonter ces défis. En premier lieu, la prise en main par les pays doit être soutenue par la communauté internationale. En second lieu, les partenaires au développement doivent changer leur organisation pour réaliser les ODD. Enfin, en obligeant les gouvernements et les partenaires au développement à redéfinir leurs stratégies à long terme et à revoir leurs mécanismes internes, la pandémie de COVID-19 offre une occasion rare d’utiliser le cadre des ODD collectivement comme une feuille de route vers la reprise : cette crise peut changer la donne.
22/04/2022
La présente note d'orientation présente les principales conclusions et informations de la mise à jour d’avril 2022 de la Base de données de l’OCDE sur la relance verte, qui recense les mesures de relance ayant un impact clair sur l’environnement adoptées par les pays membres de l’OCDE, l’Union européenne et certaines grandes économies.Depuis la précédente mise à jour de septembre 2021, le budget alloué aux mesures favorables à l’environnement est passé de 677 milliard USD à 1 090 milliards USD, tandis que les dépenses de relance ayant des effets « mitigés » sont passées de 163 milliards USD à 290 milliards USD.La Note étudie dans quelle mesure des plans de relance bien conçus peuvent présenter le double avantage de renforcer la sécurité énergétique et de permettre de meilleurs résultats pour l’environnement, dans le contexte des préoccupations énergétiques soulevées par la guerre en Ukraine.
21/04/2022
This new web format for Environment at a Glance Indicators provides real-time interactive on-line access to the latest comparable OECD-country data on the environment from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance in countries and to track the course towards sustainable development. The web version allows users to play with the data and graphics, download and share them, and consult and download thematic web-books. These indicators provide key messages on major environmental trends in areas such as climate change, biodiversity, water resources, air quality, circular economy and ocean resources. They are accompanied by a short Environment at a Glance report that presents a digest of the key messages stemming from the indicators.
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20/04/2022
This report highlights recent initiatives to inspire policy action at a time when innovation leadership by the public and private sectors is critical to meeting the net zero challenge. Countries around the world strive to become home to the next major company emerging from a start-up with a disruptive clean energy invention, and with good reason. Whilst aiding innovation in support of climate and energy goals, nurturing innovative start-ups to maturity can also create local economic prosperity because clean energy transitions will be a major market opportunity for all countries, all century long. Already, the number of government policy measures to help start-ups get new clean energy technologies to market has risen sharply since the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015. This is extremely encouraging given that energy technology start-ups continue to face challenges attracting patient capital and governments possess some unique resources to speed them through the phases to reach technical maturity while staying in business. Based on 14 detailed case studies and in-depth interviews, this report presents a range of impressive policy measures from a variety of different country contexts, and identifies eight key insights for effective policy to support clean energy start-ups.
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20/04/2022
Trade in plastic waste and scrap plays a potentially important role in helping to strengthen markets for recycled plastics as it can help to achieve economic efficiency through for instance economies of scale. But such trade has also been criticised for leading to plastic pollution when recipient countries lack capacity to treat such waste in an environmentally sound manner. This report aims to identify and assess trends in trade patterns of plastic waste and scrap in the context of recent policy developments, particularly the strengthening of controls applied in the context of the Basel Convention, which came into force at the beginning of 2021. One of the findings is that OECD Member Countries continue to make up a significant share of global trade in plastic scrap and waste (89% of global reported exports and 67% of global reported imports by weight), but that the trade surplus has continued to shrink, as well as the overall volume of trade.
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22/03/2022
Ce rapport aborde la question urgente des pertes et dommages liés au climat. Le changement climatique provoque de profonds bouleversements planétaires ayant des effets néfastes sur le bien-être des populations et leurs moyens de subsistance, et menace les avancées réalisées en termes de développement. L’ampleur et la portée des risques futurs encourus à un endroit donné font cependant l’objet d’incertitudes liées à la prédiction de la dynamique complexe du climat, ainsi qu’à l’impact des décisions individuelles et collectives qui déterminent les émissions futures de gaz à effet de serre, les tendances du développement socioéconomique et l’inégalité. Le rapport étudie la question des pertes et dommages liés au climat du point de vue de la gestion des risques. Il examine comment le changement climatique se manifestera dans différentes régions du monde et au fil du temps, en s’intéressant à trois types de dangers : les changements évoluant lentement comme la montée du niveau de la mer; les phénomènes climatiques extrêmes comme les vagues de chaleur, les fortes précipitations et les sécheresses; enfin, les éventuelles modifications non linéaires de grande ampleur dans le système climatique lui-même.Le rapport étudie les approches pour réduire et gérer les risques en mettant l’accent sur l’action des pouvoirs publics, les dispositifs financiers et l’utilité de la technologie dans l’efficacité des processus de gestion des risques. S’appuyant sur les expériences menées dans le monde entier – en particulier dans les pays les moins avancés et les petits États insulaires en développement –, ce rapport met en lumière un certain nombre de bonnes pratiques et indique des marches à suivre.
18/03/2022
Accounting for nearly 40% of global CO2 emissions and sometimes as much as 70% in large cities, buildings and construction are central to the low-carbon transition. Decarbonising buildings, especially the old stock, through energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy use, not only reduces carbon emissions, but also generates co-benefits in health, energy affordability and the labour market. Additionally, global mega-trends and the transition to a green recovery from COVID-19 provide impetus for stakeholders to take action. Cities and regions have a key role to play and can leverage prerogatives in regulation, public procurement and stakeholder engagement, while addressing multiple governance, capacity and funding gaps. To accelerate and scale up their action, cities and regions need to work with national governments to create an effective governance mechanism. Drawing on the findings of a dedicated survey of cities and regions of all sizes from both OECD and non-OECD countries, this report explains their significant role, explores sub-national policy measures, identifies key obstacles, and provides policy recommendations and a checklist for both national and subnational governments to drive the decarbonisation of buildings in cities and regions.
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17/03/2022
Illicit trade in counterfeit goods causes economic damage by reducing sales and profits as well as innovation incentives in legitimate industries. At the same time, some counterfeits can be of low quality and create significant additional risks, including health risks (fake pharmaceuticals or food products), safety risks (counterfeit automotive spare parts, fake batteries) and environmental risks (fake chemicals or pesticides). This study presents detailed information on the value of counterfeit trade in such dangerous fake goods, analyses changes in the volumes and composition of the goods, and maps key trade routes. The evidence in this report can be used to raise awareness of the risks of this trade and its implications for health and environmental policy.
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14/03/2022
As countries implement stricter environmental policies, the need for tools to compare countries’ environmental policy stringency is becoming more pressing. The OECD Environmental Policy Stringency (EPS) index has become a widely used tool for policy analysis since its creation in 2014. This paper updates the EPS index over three decades from 1990 to 2020, across 40 countries and 13 policy instruments, focussing on climate change and air pollution mitigation policies. It up-grades the index structure across all years, adding a new sub-index that measures the strength of technology support policies, which complements the existing structure of market based and non-market based sub-indices. The paper shows evolving developments – across countries and time – in the stringency of environmental policies.
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10/03/2022
La présente synthèse porte sur le rôle potentiel de la tarification du carbone dans la reprise post-COVID-19 et la réalisation des objectifs climatiques, tels que ceux énoncés dans l’Accord de Paris. Y sont exposés les changements que les 47 pays de l’OCDE et du G20 ont apportés à leurs dispositifs (systèmes d'échange de quotas d'émission (SEQE), aides aux énergies fossiles, taxes carbone, droits taxes d'accise sur les combustibles et les carburants et taxes aéronautiques) au cours des 20 premiers mois de la pandémie (janvier 2020-août 2021). Il y a lieu de penser que la majorité des 99 changements répertoriés influeront défavorablement sur l’évolution des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Cela dit, les changements climato-favorables couvrent un champ plus vaste et concernent une plus grande partie des émissions si bien qu’ils feront probablement contrepoids. Enfin, il apparaît que l’incidence de la tarification du carbone sur la reprise post-COVID-19 dépendra des caractéristiques des dispositifs retenus.
10/03/2022
This paper assesses the role of carbon pricing in a sustainable recovery from COVID-19. It tracks the policy changes in carbon pricing within OECD and G20 countries between January 2020 and August 2021 of the COVID-19 pandemic. Carbon pricing as defined here includes emissions trading schemes, fossil fuel support and carbon, fuel excise or aviation taxes. The paper also highlights the need for the recovery to be sustainable and discusses the advantages, limitations and uses of carbon pricing therein. In addition, it describes additional challenges to as well as increased rationale for carbon pricing in the pandemic. It provides evidence on the effects of carbon pricing on the challenges and discusses carbon pricing design elements to help overcome those challenges. The paper concludes that there were more policy changes with an expected negative impact on climate. However, it is likely that the impact of the climate-positive changes – which are broader in coverage and scope - will outweigh the climate-negative changes.
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22/02/2022
While plastics are extremely useful materials for modern society, plastics production and waste generation continue to increase with worsening environmental impacts despite international, national and local policy responses, as well as industry commitments. The urgent need to make the lifecycle of plastics more circular calls for an expansion of national policies and improved international co-operation to mitigate environmental impacts all along the value chain.The first of two reports, this Outlook intends to inform and support policy efforts to combat plastic leakage. The report quantifies the current production, use, disposal and key environmental impacts throughout the entire plastics lifecycle and identifies opportunities for reducing the negative externalities. It also investigates how plastics use and waste have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic across sectors and regions. The Outlook identifies four key levers for bending the plastics curve: stronger support for recycled (secondary) plastics markets; policies to boost technological innovation in plastics; more ambitious domestic policy measures; and greater international co-operation.
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04/02/2022
Global progress towards tackling climate change is lagging. This paper puts forward a framework to design comprehensive decarbonisation strategies while promoting growth and social inclusion. It first highlights the need of evaluating a country’s national climate targets and current policy mix, in conjunction with facilitating monitoring tools to assess current and future progress, as a key step to design effective decarbonisation strategies. It then provides a detailed comparison of several policy instruments across different assessment criteria, which indicates that no single instrument is clearly superior to all others. This highlights the need for developing decarbonisation strategies based on a wide policy mix consisting of three main components: 1) emission pricing policy instruments; 2) standards and regulations; 3) complementary policies to facilitate the reallocation of capital, labour and innovation towards low-carbon activities and to offset the adverse distributional effects of reducing emissions. However, there is no one-size-fits-all policy mix, as feasible policy choices depend on countries’ industrial structure, social preferences and political constraints. A robust and independent institutional framework, stakeholders engagement and credible communication campaigns are key to managing these constraints and ultimately enhancing public acceptance of climate mitigation policies.
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21/12/2021
Taking gender considerations into account when designing and implementing green recovery measures can contribute both to reducing gender inequalities and achieving environmental objectives. This paper maps the limited presence of gender-sensitive measures in the OECD Green Recovery Database, identifies additional policy areas where gender sensitivity would be beneficial, and proposes policy actions to help countries align their commitments to gender equality and environmental objectives during the COVID-19 recovery.
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17/12/2021
Les lignes directrices du G20 à Rome pour l’avenir du tourisme identifient les principaux problèmes et opportunités de repenser et de remodeler la politique du tourisme en réponse aux impacts de la pandémie de COVID-19. Il présente des lignes directrices pour l’action qui sont éclairées par la nécessité a) de rétablir la confiance et de permettre la reprise, b) de tirer des leçons de l’expérience de la pandémie et c) de donner la priorité à un programme de développement durable pour guider le tourisme futur. Ils s’artiennent autour de sept domaines d’action interdépendants: i) mobilité sûre, ii) gestion des crises; iii) la résilience; iv) l’inclusivité; v) transformation verte; vi) la transition numérique; et vii) l’investissement et l’infrastructure. Les lignes directrices du G20 à Rome ont été approuvées dans le communiqué de Rome de la réunion des ministres du Tourisme du G20 de 2021.
01/12/2021
There is no guidance on how to deal with the effects of catastrophic events, like the COVID-19 pandemic, on stated preference survey responses, despite the possible impact such events can have on stated values and survey responses. This paper provides a concise analysis of the likely effects of extreme events on stated preference surveys, focusing on the validity and temporal stability of estimated values, and offers a set of recommendations. These recommendations can also be of use for designing other types of household and individual surveys, beyond economic valuation surveys.
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30/11/2021
On a daily basis, a deluge of academic studies, reports and news tell us that the Earth’s ecosystem is in danger. They further warn that we need more than just information to address the climate crisis, protect the environment, and promote a sustainable way of living. We need action.Education plays a pivotal role in raising awareness and sensitivity about the environment. It must provide the foundational knowledge and skills to identify and resolve environmental challenges, and shape attitudes and behaviours that lead to both individual and collective action.
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23/11/2021
Les Perspectives des transports FIT 2021 proposent des scenarios d’évolution de la demande en transport jusqu’en 2050. Elles représentent également les trajectoires de décarbonation des transports correspondantes et leurs impacts sur le changement climatique. À partir de ces simulations, les Perspectives des transports FIT 2021 permettent d’identifier les mesures que les décideurs politiques auront à prendre pour assurer une transition vers une mobilité durable, à la fois efficace et équitable. Cette édition 2021 prend en compte les conséquences de la pandémie de Covid-19 sur les systèmes de transport, et modélise les évolutions potentielles sur le long terme, présentant des défis mais aussi des opportunités de décarbonation.
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