Gros plan sur la reprise inclusive

La pandémie cachée

Quelles sont les conséquences de la pandémie sur notre état d'esprit ?

Gros plan

Faire de l’égalité femmes-hommes une réalité

Lutter contre les inégalités dans l'éducation

La reprise est en vue – mais elle s’annonce inégale

Résorber la fracture numérique

Mesurer ce qui importe dans le quotidien des individus

Travailler ensemble dans les domaines de la santé, de la fiscalité et des échanges

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Lifelong learning is key if individuals are to succeed in labour markets and societies shaped by megatrends such as increases in life expectancy, rapid technological changes, globalisation, migration, environmental changes and digitalisation, as well as sudden shocks like the COVID-19 pandemic. In a fast-changing and uncertain world, lifelong learning can help individuals adapt and become resilient to external shocks. While government support remains valuable to ensure that major structural changes do not lead to deep tears in the social fabric, creating a culture of lifelong learning gives individuals themselves agency to manage change. This calls for evidence on the best ways to support lifelong learning journeys, so that individuals can “learn how to learn”. This edition of the OECD Skills Outlook 2021 explores how policies, particularly those that govern skills development and use, can best promote lifelong learning for all. The report exploits comparative quantitative data to highlight the key role played by socio-emotional and motivational factors in shaping successful engagement with lifelong learning. While such factors are essential to sustain lifelong learning in general, the pandemic has further increased their relevance.
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L'emploi informel, défini par l'absence de protection sociale basée sur l'emploi, constitue la majeure partie de l'emploi dans les pays en développement, et entraîne un niveau de vulnérabilité à la pauvreté et à d'autres risques qui sont supportés par tous ceux qui dépendent des revenus du travail informel. Les résultats de la base de données des Indicateurs clés de l’informalité en fonction des individus et leurs ménages (KIIbIH) montrent qu'un nombre disproportionné de travailleurs de l'économie informelle de la classe moyenne reçoivent des transferts de fonds. Ces résultats confirment que les stratégies de gestion des risques, telles que la migration, jouent un rôle dans la minimisation des risques potentiels du travail informel pour les ménages informels de la classe moyenne qui peuvent ne pas être éligibles à l'aide sociale. Ils suggèrent en outre que les travailleurs informels de classe moyenne peuvent avoir une demande solvable d'assurance sociale, de sorte que, si des régimes d'assurance sociale adaptés aux besoins des travailleurs informels leur étaient accessibles, les transferts de fonds pourraient potentiellement être canalisés pour financer l'extension de l'assurance sociale à l'économie informelle.
Mental ill-health affects millions of people, and drives economic costs of more than 4% of GDP. A good mental health system helps people stay in good mental health, and connects those in need to appropriate support to manage their mental health condition or even fully recover from it. However, mental health care has long been neglected and under-funded, and unmet need for care is still high. The long-lasting COVID-19 crisis and the toll it is taking on mental health has made mental health systems more important than ever. This timely report provides an in-depth analysis of how well countries are delivering the policies and services that matter for mental health system performance. The report highlights recent reforms countries have taken to strengthen mental health performance, including by increasing access to mental health care, ensuring that service users take the lead in planning and even delivering services, and prioritising integration and mental health promotion. The report also identifies promising approaches countries should pursue to better meet their populations’ mental health needs. This report sets up a framework for understanding mental health performance through internationally comparable indicators, an approach set to grow stronger still in the coming years as more data become available.
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This brief aims to support governments in designing gender-inclusive approaches to emergency management and recovery, building on OECD work and standards on gender equality in public life. Often due to pre-existing gender inequalities and socio-cultural norms, women have been disproportionately affected by the social and economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. Building on information gathered from OECD members through an April 2020 survey and consultation with the Working Party on Gender Mainstreaming and Governance, the brief explores practices and challenges in accounting for gender-differentiated impacts and the economic inclusion of both men and women in government responses to the pandemic. It also looks at how countries can promote gender equality as part of the recovery process, including through the use of tools for planning, regulations, budgets and public procurement. Ultimately, this brief provides insights on creating conditions for emergency management and recovery that take into account the needs of both men and women.
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This publication examines how to strengthen the scope and effectiveness of entrepreneurship policies for women. It examines both dedicated measures for women and ensuring that mainstream policies for all entrepreneurs are appropriate for women. Evidence is offered on the gender gap in entrepreneurship and its causes. At the heart of the report are 27 policy insight notes by leading international experts on the role of public policy in facilitating entrepreneurship by women and how policies can be strengthened. They highlight many long‑standing issues related to the scope and effectiveness of women’s entrepreneurship policies – many of which have been exacerbated by the COVID‑19 pandemic – and point the way to more effective policy. Issues addressed include fostering a gender‑sensitive entrepreneurship culture, building entrepreneurship skills for women, improving women’s access to financial capital, supporting networks for women entrepreneurs and creating supportive regulatory environments. Issues in the design and delivery of policy support are also addressed. The report was prepared by the OECD in collaboration with members of the Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy Research Project (Global WEP), a network of established researchers from over 30 counties.
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Despite changes in social norms and policies, on average across 25 European countries, there remains a gap of around 15% in hourly earnings between similarly-qualified men and women. This raises inequality and limits growth by preventing women from reaching their full labour market potential. Using individual-level data, this paper quantifies the main drivers of gender wage gaps with a view to devising effective policies to reduce them. The findings suggest that, on average, “sticky floors” related to social norms, gender stereotyping and discrimination account for 40% of the gender wage gap, while the “glass ceiling” related to the motherhood penalty accounts for around 60%. The importance of the “glass ceiling” is especially large in most Northern and Western European countries, while “sticky floors” explain the major part of the gap in most Central and Eastern European countries. These results imply that most Northern and Western European countries need to prioritise policies to address the motherhood penalty, such as further promoting flexitime and telework and supporting early childcare. Most Central and Eastern European as well as Southern European countries, where “sticky floors” are more important, additionally need to prioritise equal pay and pay transparency laws, measures to address gender stereotyping, competition in product markets, as well as higher wage floors where they are currently low.
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Literacy in the 21st century is about constructing and validating knowledge. Digital technologies have enabled the spread of all kinds of information, displacing traditional formats of usually more carefully curated information such as encyclopaedias and newspapers. The massive information flow of the digital era demands that readers be able to distinguish between fact and opinion. Readers must learn strategies to detect biased information and malicious content like fake news and phishing emails. What the PISA 21st-century readers report reveals is that students’ access to digital technologies and training on how to use them greatly vary between countries and students’ socio-economic profiles. This report explores how 15-year-old students are developing reading skills to navigate the technology-rich 21st century. It sheds light on potential ways to strengthen students’ capacity to navigate the new world of information. It highlights how countries need to redouble their efforts to combat emerging digital divides. It also explores what teachers can do to help students navigate ambiguity and manage complexity.
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Active labour market policies (ALMPs) that connect people to jobs will help to ensure an equitable and sustained recovery from the COVID‑19 crisis. Already in 2020, many governments reacted swiftly to the crisis by increasing funding for their public employment services (PES), training programmes and measures to increase labour demand. This has allowed the PES to hire additional staff and expand remote and digital accessibility to ensure service continuity. However, additional resources are needed in 2021 and the years to come to ensure that high-quality employment services and programmes can be effective in fostering a quick reintegration of the many jobseekers into the labour market. This policy brief highlights how OECD and a number of other countries have responded to the crisis in adapting and expanding the provision of employment services.
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La pandémie de COVID-19 est une tragédie sanitaire mondiale. Pourtant, alors que la fin de la crise sanitaire mondiale se profile, une autre blessure menace de laisser une cicatrice plus profonde : celle d’une insécurité économique tenace. Le cycle 2020 de l’enquête de l’OCDE sur « Des risques qui comptent » (Risks that Matter - RTM) dresse un tableau inquiétant des perturbations économiques et des inquiétudes croissantes à propos de la santé et de la sécurité financière dans 25 pays de l’OCDE. Malgré des investissements publics massifs dans la protection sociale pendant la pandémie, les citoyens de la plupart des pays de l’OCDE attendent des aides publiques plus importantes pour sortir de la crise - et beaucoup se disent prêts à payer plus d’impôts pour financer de meilleurs programmes de santé, de retraite, d’emploi et de soins de longue durée.
Les effets dévastateurs du coronavirus (COVID-19) sur les pays en développement ont mis à l'épreuve les limites, l'ingéniosité et la flexibilité de la coopération au développement, tout en révélant de bonnes pratiques. Cette 58e édition du rapport Coopération pour le développement présente les premières réflexions des dirigeants, des membres de l'OCDE, des experts et de la société civile sur les implications du coronavirus (COVID-19) pour la solidarité mondiale en 2021 et au-delà. Le rapport suggère des pistes d'action pour l'ensemble de la communauté internationale du développement en vue d'une action audacieuse et d'une réforme systémique. L’objectif est de mettre en place des systèmes nationaux et internationaux résistants, capables de faire face aux chocs mondiaux et de fournir et protéger les biens publics mondiaux, tout en poursuivant les actions de fond en faveur du développement durable. Il comprend également un panorama actualisé de la coopération pour le développement, étayé par les données de plus de 80 fournisseurs, membres de l’OCDE et du Comité d'aide au développement, mais aussi d’autres pays ou encore des fondations philanthropiques.
Achieving gender equality and tackling discriminatory laws, social norms and practices set a direct path toward a more inclusive economy and society. The SIGI 2021 Regional Report for Southeast Asia provides new evidence-based analysis on the setbacks and progress in achieving gender equality between 2014 and 2019 in 11 countries. The report uncovers the discrimination women face within social institutions in various dimensions; in the family and household context, in relation to physical integrity and access to productive and financial resources, as well within the political and civil spheres. The SIGI 2021 Regional Report for Southeast Asia explores the interaction between women’s empowerment and discriminatory social institutions by looking specifically at four core areas – health, education, the economic dimension and decision making. It also unveils the cost of discriminatory social institutions for Southeast Asian countries and the socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 crisis for women and girls. Building on the regional analysis of how discriminatory social institutions continue to hinder efforts toward SDG 5, the report provides a set of policy recommendations to enhance governments’ efforts to deliver on their gender equality commitments by 2030.
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En dépit des lourdes répercussions de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur le tourisme, la crise que nous traversons offre une occasion de repenser l’avenir de ce secteur. Pour parvenir à une reprise plus verte et plus durable du tourisme, il faut que les pouvoirs publics accordent une plus grande attention aux piliers environnemental et socio-culturel de la durabilité. Cette étude porte sur cinq éléments fondamentaux devant étayer les solutions apportées par les pouvoirs publics, et les meilleures pratiques, qui aideront les destinations touristiques à se reconstruire et à prospérer dans ce contexte radicalement différent dans lequel doit désormais s’inscrire le développement du tourisme. Les solutions recommandées ont pour objectif de : 1) redéfinir le succès du tourisme ; 2) adopter une approche associant les responsables publics, les acteurs du tourisme et les communautés locales ; 3) généraliser les politiques et les pratiques durables ; 4) élaborer des modèles économiques plus durables pour la filière touristique ; et 5) mieux mesurer pour mieux gérer. Ce rapport présente une sélection de neuf études de cas consacrées aux stratégies déployées par les destinations à l’appui d’une reprise durable et inclusive.
This brief proposes estimates of the loss in on-the-job learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participation in informal learning due to widespread shutdowns of economic activities is estimated to have decreased by 25%. In the case of non-formal learning the estimate corresponds to 18%. This represents a notable amount of lost learning, and one which may not be easily recovered. Estimated learning losses are highly heterogeneous across sectors and individuals, and depend on the pervasiveness of shutdowns of economic activities. Workers employed in administrative and support service activities; in the arts, entertainment and recreation, are expected to lose, on average, nearly three-quarters of informal and non‑formal learning opportunities per week. Results also show that the pandemic likely led to fewer learning opportunities for disadvantaged and low-skilled workers who, in turn, are most likely going to need retraining.
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Le rapport États de fragilité 2020 définit un programme d’action pour lutter contre la fragilité à l’heure où le monde se trouve à un tournant décisif : le compte à rebours du Programme de développement durable à l’horizon 2030 est désormais lancé alors même que la pandémie de COVID-19 vient réduire à néant des acquis durement obtenus. Le rapport livre une analyse de la fragilité en deux volets : il décrit, d’une part, la situation globale qui prévalait avant la pandémie, et d’autre part, les conséquences catastrophiques de la pandémie sur cette situation. Il prend acte de la dure réalité de la fragilité dans son caractère multidimensionnel et sa complexité. Il explore les aspects théoriques et pratiques de cette problématique afin de proposer de nouvelles pistes pour l’analyse du capital humain et la prévention des conflits, et d’adapter l’action publique de sorte qu’elle contribue à l’obtention de résultats plus résilients. Axé sur le thème de la paix dans les contextes de fragilité, le rapport met en lumière le rôle important des artisans de la paix, des diplomates et des acteurs de la sécurité déployés sur le terrain, et plaide en faveur d’une plus grande complémentarité et cohérence entre action humanitaire, développement et recherche de la paix. En conclusion, il rapproche théorie et pratique pour répondre à la question de savoir sur quoi repose l’efficacité des interventions dans les contextes fragiles. L’édification de sociétés pacifiques, justes et inclusives, qui ne laissent personne de côté, ne sera possible qu’en accordant une attention toute particulière à la question de la fragilité.
The COVID-19 crisis has amplified the urgency of addressing together the dual challenges of inequality and environmental degradation. This paper contributes to the debate on the inequalities-environment nexus by analysing the consequences of the environmental degradation and of environmental policies on four well-being dimensions: health, income and wealth, work and job quality, and safety. The analysis shows that the impacts of environmental degradation tends to be concentrated among vulnerable groups and households. At the same, the benefits and costs of environmental policies are also likely to be unevenly distributed across households. In this context, policy packages for an inclusive green transition should aim at: (i) mitigating the possible regressive impact of pricing environmental externalities, (ii) investing in human capital and upgrading skills to facilitate labour reallocation, (iii) addressing systemic inequalities with sectoral and place-based policies, (iv) ensuring efficient and responsive governance. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for an effective framework to measure progress towards a people-centred green recovery, and possible areas of future work.
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Labour market inequalities are well-known to be the main drivers of the gender pension gap. This publication focuses on helping governments find solutions for retirement savings arrangements that do not further exacerbate these inequalities. This study first analyses why the gender pension gap exists and sheds light on some of the behavioural and cultural factors that contribute to these inequalities. Country case studies assess how demographics, labour markets and other factors may affect gaps in pension coverage, assets and entitlements. The study then explores how the design of retirement savings plans affects men and women differently. Finally, it provides policy options to improve retirement savings outcomes for women and to help close the gender pension gap.
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Un an après le début de la crise du COVID-19, les perspectives d’avenir semblent certes plus prometteuses, mais le moment n’est pas encore venu de supprimer les aides publiques aux individus et aux entreprises. Si les chiffres du marché du travail dans de nombreux pays semblent globalement meilleurs qu’au deuxième trimestre de 2020, des millions de travailleurs continuent de bénéficier de dispositifs de maintien dans l’emploi et des millions d’autres sont sans emploi ou sous-employés. Dans les mois à venir, alors que les pays se préparent à mettre en œuvre leurs plans de relance, il est essentiel de continuer à soutenir les familles et les entreprises encore durement touchées par la crise, tout en mettant en place des incitations propices à la création d’emplois et à la reprise du travail. Sans de telles mesures, la reprise économique et sociale partirait d’encore plus bas. Le coût à brève échéance est élevé, mais il est bien inférieur à ce que pourraient coûter des faillites en série, des licenciements en masse, une économie atone et un marché du travail déprimé. En outre, il est possible de réduire les coûts à court terme en ciblant davantage les aides sur les secteurs, entreprises et ménages les plus vulnérables, tout en favorisant les entreprises qui démarrent et la création d’emplois.
COVID-19 has put renewed focus on the importance of addressing longstanding challenges that OECD governments face in delivering public services, especially in regions with people spread over a wider area where economies of scale are more difficult to achieve. The physical infrastructure needed to provide good quality education and health services can be more complex and expensive in rural and remote regions that also struggle to attract and retain education and health care professionals. Acute ageing trends in many rural regions and, in some cases, a shrinking population will require sustainable policy responses that will need to be coherent with pressure to drive efficiencies in public spending. This report examines the nuances specific to the delivery of education and health care to people everywhere, offering recommendations on how to better adapt provision to the realities of today and the emerging realities of tomorrow to face the challenges of distance, demographic change and fiscal belt-tightening. The report also examines digital connectivity issues in rural and remote regions, recognising the significant scope for digital delivery of services to mitigate challenges related to distance. Finally, the report looks at governance issues, including fiscal issues, through which the delivery of these critical services is administered and paid for.
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Differences in average wages across firms – which account for around one-half of overall wage inequality – are mainly explained by differences in firm wage premia (the part of wages that depends exclusively on characteristics of firms) rather than workforce composition. Using a new cross-country dataset of linked employer-employee data, this paper investigates the role of cross-firm dispersion in productivity in explaining dispersion in firm wage premia, as well as the factors shaping the link between productivity and wages at the firm level. The results suggest that around 15% of cross-firm differences in productivity are passed on to differences in firm wage premia. The degree of pass-through is systematically larger in countries and industries with more limited job mobility, where low-productivity firms can afford to pay lower wage premia relative to high-productivity ones without a substantial fraction of workers quitting their jobs. Stronger product market competition raises pass-through while more centralised bargaining and higher minimum wages constrain firm-level wage setting at any given level of productivity dispersion. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that the key priority should be to promote job mobility, which would reduce wage differences between firms while easing the efficient reallocation of workers across them.
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Skills are central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in a rapidly changing world. Recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic will require countries to co-ordinate interventions to help recent graduates find jobs, reactivate the skills of displaced workers and use skills effectively in workplaces. Megatrends such as globalisation, climate change, technological progress and demographic change will continue to reshape work and society. Countries should take action now to develop and use more effectively the skills required for the world of the future and at the same time make their skills systems more resilient and adaptable in the context of change and uncertainty.The OECD Skills Strategy provides countries with a strategic approach to assess their skills challenges and opportunities. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy framework allowing countries to explore how they can improve i) developing relevant skills, ii) using skills effectively, and iii) strengthening the governance of the skills system.This report applies the OECD Skills Strategy framework to Southeast Asia, providing an overview of the region’s skills challenges and opportunities in the context of COVID-19 and megatrends, and identifying good practices for improving skills outcomes. This report lays the foundation for a more fully elaborated Skills Strategy for Southeast Asia.
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