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07/07/2020
Facing the jobs crisis
06/07/2020
Safeguarding workers and firms
Safeguarding workers and firms
17/05/2020
Covid-19 and the growing digital divide in education
Covid-19 and the growing digital divide in education
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03/08/2020
Job retention (JR) schemes have been one of the main policy tools used by a number of OECD countries to contain the employment and social fallout of the COVID-19 crisis. By May 2020, JR schemes supported about 50 million jobs across the OECD, about ten times as many as during the global financial crisis of 2008-09. By reducing labour costs, JR schemes have prevented a surge in unemployment, while they have mitigated financial hardship and buttressed aggregate demand by supporting the incomes of workers on reduced working time. However, as the first wave of the health crisis is receding in some OECD countries and government restrictions to economic activities are being withdrawn, JR schemes need to adjust. This requires a better targeting of JR support to jobs that are viable but at risk of being terminated and a greater focus on supporting workers at risk of becoming unemployed, rather than their jobs.
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30/07/2020
The “social economy” has played an important role in addressing and mitigating the short- and long-term impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on economy and society. In the short term, social economy actors have assisted the recovery from the crisis by providing innovative solutions that are aimed at strengthening public services to complement government action. In the long term, social economy organisations can help reshape the post-crisis economy by promoting inclusive and sustainable economic models. Relying on decades of experience, its specific features and underlying principles, the social economy can inspire models of social innovation and a sense of purpose to firms operating in the market economy.
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23/07/2020
This note is an update of the earlier versions released on 27 March and 13 May. It provides analysis on issues related to the economic, social and environmental impacts, lessons learned in terms of digitalisation, mobility, density, urban design and collaborative governance, and action-oriented guidance to build back better cities, building on previous work on urban resilience.
22/07/2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted construction, made it difficult for many households to pay for shelter, and seriously hurt the housing sector. Governments have responded with a wide array of measures to protect tenants and mortgage-holders, as well as support builders and lenders. This note mobilises web-search data to shed new light on the impact of the crisis on the construction sector. It then takes stock of measures taken by governments and argues that some of the relief could, if not duly phased out as planned, create unintended inefficiencies and notably make housing supply less responsive to changes in demand and the evolving needs of society. The note concludes by building on recent empirical findings that stress the importance of gradually transitioning from immediate rescue measures to policy settings that can support the recovery and the development of efficient, inclusive and sustainable housing markets.
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20/07/2020
Gender equality and women’s empowerment can only be achieved if countries take action to tackle and eliminate discrimination in their legal frameworks, social norms and practices. The SIGI 2020 Regional Report for Latin America and the Caribbean provides new evidence-based analysis on the setbacks and progress in achieving gender equality between 2014 and 2019. The report uncovers discrimination in social institutions faced by Latin American and Caribbean women in various dimensions; within the family and household context, in relation to physical integrity and access to productive and financial resources, as well within the political and civil spheres. It also explores various development perspectives such as the cost of discriminatory social institutions for Latin American and Caribbean countries and the socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for women and girls. Building on the regional and sub-regional analysis of how discriminatory social institutions continue to hinder efforts toward SDG 5, the report provides a set of policy recommendations to reshape gender norms, promote women’s empowerment and build a truly inclusive society.
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16/07/2020
This report takes stock of approaches taken by public organisations to counter external fraud in social benefit programmes (SBP) and suggests areas for improvement. It provides insights on preventive and detective measures, and promotes a risk-based approach to addressing fraud and error in SBPs in line with the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Public Integrity. It explores how public organisations can leverage data-driven approaches to improve fraud detection, and how strengthening evaluation activities can promote continuous improvement of anti-fraud measures.
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10/07/2020
This policy brief investigates how countries responded to immediate shortages of workers during the COVID-19 crisis. It identifies which jobs were in demand using online vacancy data and describes the skills profiles of those jobs. By comparing them with the skills profiles of similar jobs in low demand, it considers the viability of redeploying unemployed adults to jobs where hiring is increasing. The brief shares examples of innovative ways in which countries retrained and redeployed their labour force to meet immediate demand during the health crisis.
07/07/2020
The 2020 edition of the OECD Employment Outlook focuses on worker security and the COVID-19 crisis. Chapter 1 provides an initial assessment of the labour market consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak and the resulting economic crisis. It also presents an overview of the emergency labour market and social policy measures implemented by OECD countries and discusses directions for further policy adaptation as countries move out of lockdown. Chapter 2 investigates the uneven access to unemployment benefits for workers in part-time and less stable jobs, which often accentuates the hardship they face in times of crisis, and discusses the difficult balance between work incentives and income security. Chapter 3 provides a comparative review of employment protection legislation (EPL) across OECD countries by developing a new version of the OECD's EPL indicators, which now include an improved assessment of regulations for collective redundancies, unfair dismissals and enforcement issues. Chapter 4 takes a fresh look at job polarisation, and in particular the hollowing out of jobs in middle-skill occupations. Finally, Chapter 5 examines the changing labour market outcomes for middle-educated vocational education and training graduates, whose labour market perspectives are challenged by the contraction of jobs in middle-skill occupations.
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03/07/2020
The urgency of tackling COVID-19 has led governments in many countries to launch a number of short-notice and fast-tracked initiatives (e.g. calls for research proposals). Without proper co-ordination amongst ministries and agencies, they run the risk of duplicating efforts or missing opportunities, resulting in slower progress and economic inefficiencies.
03/07/2020
This policy brief derives four key actions that governments and platforms can take to counter COVID-19 disinformation on platforms, namely: 1) supporting a multiplicity of independent fact-checking organisations; 2) ensuring human moderators are in place to complement technological solutions; 3) voluntarily issuing transparency reports about COVID-19 disinformation; and 4) improving users’ media, digital and health literacy skills.
03/07/2020
This policy brief provides an overview of this new wave of disinformation and notes some emerging examples of OECD member countries’ responses to it through public communication initiatives specifically. It also offers preliminary guidelines on engaging with citizens during the crisis to help address this challenge.
30/06/2020
Digitalisation is transforming the world of work and societies, and creating opportunities to learn and develop skills in new ways, times and places. The adoption and use of digital technologies can help Latin American countries close the skills gap with more advanced economies. Making the Most of Technology for Learning and Training in Latin America demonstrates how Latin American countries can realise the potential of new technologies for skills development in schools and all stages of life. It identifies barriers to accessing ICT infrastructure and connectivity limitations in Latin America, and provides recommendations on how they can be overcome to ensure that all students and citizens can benefit from new technologies for learning. The report explores the relationship between technology use in initial education and students’ performance in Latin America, and how policies can best support teachers as digital tools enter their classrooms. Digitalisation provides new opportunities for lifelong learning and this report examines the potential of open education and MOOCs in reaching those adults who are most in need of training in Latin American countries.
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29/06/2020
This paper outlines a dual strategy to bring disengaged students back to school, and mitigate effectively student disengagement in case of future lockdowns.
22/06/2020
This paper features the long-term care sector, its workforce and infrastructure in light of the COVID-19 crisis.
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15/06/2020
Through social benefit programmes (SBP), governments protect individuals and families from economic and social risks, and provide a safety net for households and businesses. As governments are witnessing an increase in cases of fraud in SBPs, maintaining the effectiveness and accountability of these programmes is more vital than ever. This note considers how governments can safeguard SBPs from fraud and error in both the short and long term to ensure that entitlements are reaching beneficiaries as the effects of the COVID-19 crisis continue to be felt.
15/06/2020
The focus of this brief is on the steps that government can take to address the consequences of coronavirus (COVID-19) in situations of forced displacement in developing countries with a view to ensuring that no one is left behind. The brief examines the exposure of forcibly displaced persons to health risks and the socio-economic consequences of the pandemic, in particular in fragile contexts. It further highlights key protection safeguards to be integrated in the effort to improve health systems and resilience of societies.
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12/06/2020
Issue Note 4This note provides estimates of the share of non-standard workers that are particularly vulnerable to the loss of income or job as a result of the widespread shutdown in economic activity due to COVID-19 containment measures. The focus is on non-standard workers, given that they often have less access to social protection and to job retention schemes than regular workers. The changing nature of work has been associated with a gradual increase over time in the share of non-standard forms of employment. The note discusses what policies can do, and what policy actions governments have taken, to support vulnerable workers during the COVID-19 crisis. Parts of this paper are also available in OECD (2020), OECD Economic Outlook, Volume 2020 Issue 1: Preliminary version, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/0d1d1e2e-en.
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11/06/2020
The COVID-19 global health emergency and its economic and social impacts have disrupted nearly all aspects of life for all groups in society. People of different ages, however, are experiencing its effects in different ways. Based on survey findings from 90 youth organisations from 48 countries, this policy brief outlines practical measures governments can take to design inclusive and fair recovery measures that leave no one behind.
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10/06/2020
This brief assesses migration policy reactions by OECD countries in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It reviews the introduction and development of short-term policy responses from March to early June and identifies some of the possible forthcoming medium and longer-term challenges to migration management arising from this global health crisis.
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10/06/2020
This brief takes stock of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender equality in the region and highlights gender-sensitive measures and initiatives taken by governments, the private sector and civil society to mitigate the impact of the crisis on women. It asserts that the COVID-19 crisis is a watershed moment for gender equality in the MENA region and an opportunity to rethink women’s role in the economy and society. The region’s long-term recovery will depend on its ability to fully leverage the potential of both its men and women.
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