Key policy responses from the OECD

filter by concept
Concepts are extracted from documents through artificial intelligence
Find any concept
search...
filter by language
filter by content type
219 results available
Sort by date 
19/07/2021
The COVID-19 pandemic saw a significant shift among most tax administrations to remote working by many of their staff. As tax administrations consider the shape of the workplace post-pandemic, many are examining the options for some degree of continued remote working for employees on a longer-term basis. Such a shift needs careful consideration as it touches many aspects of an organisation, from information technology through to employment policy and organisational culture. This note explore some of the key issues that tax administrations may wish to consider in designing remote working policies, processes and guidance to help ensure that longer-term remote working is sustainable for both the tax administration as a whole as well as individual employees. This note does not provide recommendations for particular measures as the circumstances of each administration will vary. Instead, the intention is that the information in this note will help to stimulate thinking in tax administrations as to where changes or additions to existing strategies could be needed, which is brought to life through examples of actions taken or planned by Forum on Tax Administration members.
concept
15/07/2021
Active labour market policies (ALMPs) that connect people to good jobs will help to promote an equitable and sustained recovery from the COVID‑19 crisis. Labour demand measures have been vital to preserve jobs in the short term and countries have begun to implement a suite of training programmes for displaced workers. Getting the correct balance of ALMPs is essential for ensuring an effective use of resources that reach, the people in need, including those most at risk of permanent detachment from the labour market and respond well to their needs. This policy brief highlights how OECD countries and a number of other countries have responded to the crisis in adapting and expanding the suite of ALMPs that they offer to prepare for an inclusive recovery.
Read in
concept
06/07/2021
Young people are among the most affected by the economic crisis as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This brief provides cross-national information on young people’s concerns, perceived vulnerabilities and policy preferences. The results of the OECD Risks That Matter 2020 survey reveal that two in three 18-to-29 year olds are worried about their household’s finances and overall social and economic well-being, and an equal share thinks the government should be doing more to support them. However, only one in four young people are willing to pay additional taxes to finance better provision of employment or income support.
Read in
concept
06/07/2021
Young people have been hard hit by the wide-reaching labour market and social impacts of the COVID-19 crisis. Youth unemployment has increased considerably; education and work‑based learning have been heavily disrupted; and many young people are suffering from financial insecurity, housing instability and mental distress. OECD governments have responded to this situation by taking comprehensive policy measures for young people, ranging from labour market and income support measures, to housing responses and mental health support. This policy brief provides an overview of the measures that countries have put in place to avoid a long-lasting negative impact on the employment prospects and aspirations of young people.
Read in
concept
23/06/2021
This policy brief discusses the effects that the COVID-19 crisis could have on the future of science, technology and innovation (STI) and its policies. Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the crisis on research and development (R&D) across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness, inclusiveness and agility of research and innovation ecosystems. STI policy could see fundamental changes as resilience, environmental sustainability and inclusiveness become more prominent objectives on policy agendas. The crisis could also spur experimentation with new tools, policy approaches and governance models.
Read in
concept
31/05/2021
OECD Ministers have endorsed a new initiative to promote safe international travel during the COVID-19 pandemic at the OECD’s annual Ministerial meeting in Paris. The Initiative involves a safe travel blueprint and a temporary international cross-sectoral forum for knowledge sharing. The forum will allow governments and stakeholders to share information in real time on plans and approaches facilitating travel. The blueprint promotes greater certainty, safety and security in travel as re-opening takes place. It builds on existing initiatives and aims to increase interoperability amongst travel regimes. It will be implemented by countries on a voluntary basis.
concept
27/05/2021
All across the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to exceptional needs for government spending while at the same time reducing tax revenues. The result is an increase in public debt almost everywhere.
Read in
21/05/2021
This brief analyses the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated government responses on the environment. It links the impact of sectoral and regional shocks to the economy until 2040 to a range of environmental pressures, including greenhouse gas emissions, emissions of air pollutants, the use of raw materials and land use change. The short-term reductions in environmental pressures are significant; as the economy gradually recovers, emissions are projected to increase again, with growth rates going back to the pre-COVID baseline projection levels. But there is a long-term – potentially permanent – downward impact on the levels of environmental pressures of 1-3%, with stronger effects for pressures related to capital-intensive economic activities.
concept
19/05/2021
The COVID‑19 pandemic and its associated government measures to limit mobility impacted patterns and places of alcohol consumption. While the path to recovery remains long and difficult, this crisis also increases the risk that individuals engage in harmful drinking to cope with stress. During the COVID‑19 pandemic, there has been an increase in domestic violence, for which harmful alcohol consumption is a risk factor.Harmful alcohol consumption damages health, causes diseases and injuries, weakens response to COVID‑19, and leads to significant economic and societal costs. Comprehensive policy packages built on a PPPP approach including Pricing policies, Policing to counter drink-driving, Primary care‑based counselling for heavy drinkers, and regulating alcohol Promotion activities, improve health, and support a stronger economic and social recovery in the aftermath of the pandemic.
concept
19/05/2021
This brief aims to support governments in designing gender-inclusive approaches to emergency management and recovery, building on OECD work and standards on gender equality in public life. Often due to pre-existing gender inequalities and socio-cultural norms, women have been disproportionately affected by the social and economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. Building on information gathered from OECD members through an April 2020 survey and consultation with the Working Party on Gender Mainstreaming and Governance, the brief explores practices and challenges in accounting for gender-differentiated impacts and the economic inclusion of both men and women in government responses to the pandemic. It also looks at how countries can promote gender equality as part of the recovery process, including through the use of tools for planning, regulations, budgets and public procurement. Ultimately, this brief provides insights on creating conditions for emergency management and recovery that take into account the needs of both men and women.
Read in
concept
12/05/2021
The COVID‑19 crisis has heightened the risk factors generally associated with poor mental health – financial insecurity, unemployment, fear – while protective factors – social connection, employment and educational engagement, access to physical exercise, daily routine, access to health services – fell dramatically. This has led to a significant and unprecedented worsening of population mental health. Across countries, the mental health of unemployed people and those experiencing financial insecurity was worse than that of the general population – a trend that pre‑dates the pandemic, but seems to have accelerated in some cases. OECD countries have responded with decisive efforts to scale‑up mental health services, and put into place measures to protect jobs and incomes, thereby reducing mental distress for some. However, the scale of mental distress since the start of the pandemic requires more integrated, whole‑of-society mental health support if it is not to lead to permanent scarring.
concept
12/05/2021
The mental health of young people has been significantly impacted by the COVID‑19 crisis. Prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression has risen dramatically among young people and remains higher than pre‑crisis levels even with the partial re‑opening of the economy, and compared to other age groups, even as economies partially re-open. The worsening of mental health can be attributed to disruptions to access to mental health services, the wide‑ranging impacts of school closures, and a labour market crisis that is disproportionately affecting young people. With adequate support and timely intervention, young people experiencing mental distress may be able to bounce back as we recover from the COVID‑19 crisis. This will require a scaling up of existing mental health support in education systems, workplaces and health systems, and comprehensive policies to support young people to remain in education, or to find and keep a job.
concept
10/05/2021
While the rapid development of vaccines against COVID‑19 is an extraordinary achievement, successfully vaccinating the global population presents many challenges, from production to distribution, deployment, and importantly, acceptance. Trust in the vaccines is vital, and is critically dependant on the ability of governments to communicate the benefits of vaccination, and to deliver the vaccines safely and effectively. This brief addresses the role of governments in promoting confidence in the effectiveness and safety through effective communication, as well as trust in their ability to procure and distribute them efficiently and equitably. While only a small minority of the population holds strong anti-vaccination views, hesitancy about COVID‑19 vaccination is evident in many countries. Recognising that vaccination campaigns of the magnitude needed are unprecedented, government actions to garner trust will be essential to their success, and to the emergence of more resilient societies after the crisis.
Read in
concept
10/05/2021
The regional and local impact of the COVID-19 crisis is highly heterogeneous, with significant implications for crisis management and policy responses. This paper takes an in-depth look at the territorial impact of the COVID-19 crisis across its different dimensions: health, economic, social and fiscal. It provides a comprehensive overview of national and subnational government response measures to manage the vaccination campaigns across levels of government and mitigate the territorial effects of the crisis. Finally, the paper offers a forward looking perspective on the crisis’ implications for multi-level governance, as well as points for policy-makers to consider as they build more resilient regions.
Read in
concept
29/04/2021
Active labour market policies (ALMPs) that connect people to jobs will help to ensure an equitable and sustained recovery from the COVID‑19 crisis. Already in 2020, many governments reacted swiftly to the crisis by increasing funding for their public employment services (PES), training programmes and measures to increase labour demand. This has allowed the PES to hire additional staff and expand remote and digital accessibility to ensure service continuity. However, additional resources are needed in 2021 and the years to come to ensure that high-quality employment services and programmes can be effective in fostering a quick reintegration of the many jobseekers into the labour market. This policy brief highlights how OECD and a number of other countries have responded to the crisis in adapting and expanding the provision of employment services.
Read in
concept
28/04/2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has been a global health tragedy. Yet as the world inches towards the end of the health crisis, another injury threatens to leave a more enduring scar: that of entrenched economic insecurity. The 2020 round of the OECD Risks that Matter survey presents a stark picture of economic disruption and rising worries about health and financial security across 25 OECD countries. Despite massive government investments in social protection during the pandemic, people in most OECD countries are looking for more public support to lift them out of the crisis – and many report a willingness to pay more in taxes in order to fund better health, pensions, employment and long-term care programmes.
concept
21/04/2021
During the COVID-19 crisis, many tax administrations had to close offices and move to almost full or partial remote working. For many, this has also coincided with the peak filing season and an increase for some in the administration of benefits affected by COVID-19. This had impacts on normal operations, as some administrations have not been able to carry out business as usual in all areas, including difficulties in dealing with paper communications and forms, physical audits, taxpayer contacts and some aspects of systems maintenance. In addition, many administrations have been asked to undertake new roles providing assistance, including financial assistance, to taxpayers on behalf of the wider government.This note is intended to provide a status/pulse check on the impact of digitalisation of tax administration in dealing with the COVID-19 crisis, with a particular focus on taxpayer services, compliance risk management, remote working, IT systems and providing support for wider government. It has been produced by the OECD Forum on Tax Administration (FTA) Secretariat in collaboration with the FTA Enterprise Risk Management Community of Interest and takes account of input provided by more than thirty tax administrations that completed a digital resilience survey. The results are presented on an anonymised basis.
concept
19/04/2021
This policy brief presents results and policy insights drawn from the OECD Green Recovery Database. The database shows that while USD 336 billion has been allocated towards environmentally positive measures within COVID-19 recovery packages, this total is almost equally matched by funding channelled to measures categorised as having mixed or negative environmental impacts. Furthermore, the spending allocated to green measures represents only around 17% of total COVID-19 recovery spending announced by governments. The small proportion of green measures implies that overall packages may not deliver the transformational investments needed. The sectoral split of environmental measures also points to missed opportunities. Given these findings, this policy brief concludes with policy steps governments can take to ensure that recovery packages are better aligned with environmental goals.
Read in
concept
09/04/2021
This policy brief uses online job vacancy postings as a partial indicator of the impact of COVID-19 on skills demand in five OECD countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States) between January and November 2020. The pandemic, as well as containment and mitigation measures designed to halt its spread, had a large but heterogeneous impact on the demand for skills. By early May, the total volume of online job vacancies had fallen by over 50% in all the countries analysed with respect to the beginning of the year, with even larger declines in some sectors. However, the demand for specific skills in the healthcare sector and in logistics increased. There is also evidence of an increase in vacancies involving remote-working arrangements. The brief also shows that the crisis affected differently individuals with different levels of educational qualifications and that such effect differed across the countries analysed.
Read in
concept
08/04/2021
This paper provides an analysis of the diverse range of SME and entrepreneurship policy measures implemented during the course of a year since the start of the COVID-19 crisis, with a view to identify lessons learned and implications for policy going forward, and assist governments build evidence-based policies to support SME recovery and resilience. The paper documents how SMEs were at the centre of the disruptions at the start of the pandemic and that one year later they stand in an even more precarious position, in particular young firms and start-ups, the self-employed, as well as women-led or minority-owned businesses. Governments acted swiftly to put in place ambitious support for SMEs and entrepreneurs, but one year into the pandemic, they are facing a complex dilemma that emergency liquidity support remains essential but at the same time it is not sustainable over the longer term and may have potential negative effects that need to be addressed to support the recovery. This paper formulates 15 lessons learned to help governments address three challenges: First, to continue support measures to avoid a liquidity crisis among SMEs while minimising the negative side effects; Second, to ensure that the gradual phase out of this emergency support does not create an SME solvency crisis; And third, to introduce effective policies that foster SME recovery.
concept
Show more 
TwitterFacebookLinkedInEmail