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The interactive figures below give a snapshot of the contents and potential applications of the AMIS Policy Database. These figures focus on a selected set of policies and are based on the information in the database. For some of the figures, the data have been modified (e.g. averaged or aggregated).

The AMIS Policy Database itself contains much more information; it covers additional policies and provides more detailed information (e.g. HS codes, links to original sources, ...).

Export Restrictions

The AMIS Policy Database records information on six different export restrictive measures. The figures below focus on five of these measures (export prohibition, export quota, export tax, licensing requirement, and minimum reference price) and show which AMIS countries are implementing these measures on the four AMIS crops (wheat, rice, maize and soybeans) as well as the composition over time and duration of these measures.

Information on export restrictions is collected by the OECD for AMIS. The AMIS Policy Database records export restrictions applied from 1 January 2007 onwards (for some countries information prior to 2007 is provided).

Export restrictions - Evolution

Evolution by commodity

This figure shows which AMIS countries implemented the five main export restrictive measures (export prohibition, export quota, export tax, licensing requirement, and minimum reference price) on the selected commodity class and over the selected time period.

  • Policies are displayed in this figure at commodity class level (wheat, maize, rice and soybeans). The AMIS policy database specifies the HS codes (and other detailed information).
  • Policies without an explicit end date are shown to stay valid until the last date displayed in the graph.
Evolution by policy

This figure shows which AMIS countries have implemented the selected export restrictive measure for the four AMIS commodities (wheat, maize, rice and soybeans) over the selected time period.

  • Policies are displayed in this figure at commodity class level (wheat, maize, rice and soybeans). The AMIS policy database specifies the HS codes (and other detailed information).
  • Policies without an explicit end date are shown to stay valid until the last date displayed in the graph.

Export restrictions - Composition

Composition by commodity

This figure shows the composition by commodity of the five main export restrictive measures combined (export prohibition, export quota, export tax, licensing requirement, and minimum reference price) in all AMIS countries over the selected period.

  • Policies are counted as follows: for each country the measures in the AMIS policy database which have the same "commodity class name", " policy measure name", "publication date",  "start date" and "end date" are counted as one.
  • Mixed commodity classes can occur in two cases: when a policy measure applies to a group of commodities (e.g. an export quota that applies to certain varieties of rice and wheat) or when commodity itself is a combination of different commodity classes (e.g. a semi-processed product that contains both wheat and maize).
Composition by policy

This figure shows the composition by export restrictive measure on the four AMIS commodities combined (wheat, maize, rice and soybeans) in all AMIS countries over the selected period.

  • Policies are counted as follows: for each country the measures in the AMIS policy database which have the same "commodity class name", " policy measure name", "publication date", "start date" and "end date" are counted as one.

Export restrictions - Duration

This figure shows the duration of the selected export restrictive measures that were introduced in the selected period.

  • Policies are counted as follows: for each country the measures in the AMIS policy database which have the same "commodity class name", " policy measure name", "publication date",  "start date" and "end date" are counted as one.

Import Tariffs

The AMIS policy database contains information on import tariffs starting from 2010 for the AMIS countries. The figures below average the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) applied tariffs and final bound tariffs for the four AMIS commodities (wheat, maize, rice and soybeans).

The data on import tariffs are sourced from existing WTO databases.

Import tariffs - All AMIS countries

This figure compares the average values of MFN applied and final bound ad valorem import tariffs on the four AMIS crops (wheat, rice, maize and soybeans) in all AMIS countries.

  • Data on specific or compound tariffs are not considered for this graph, nor are Other Duties and Charges (ODC) and information on mixed commodity classes.
  • The number of notifications differs from year to year and not all countries notify each year. The number of tariff lines (TLS) that are used to calculate the average values depend on the notifications on applied tariffs made in a specific year. For example, if there were notification on applied tariffs for 20 TLS that relate to wheat in 2010, then the average bound value will be calculated using those 20 TLS. If in the next year, there were notifications on applied tariffs for 40 TLS that relate to wheat in 2011, then the average bound value will be calculated using those 40 TLS.
  • Original data source: Tariff Analysis Online facility (WTO)

Import tariffs - By AMIS country

This figure compares the average values of MFN applied and final bound ad valorem import tariffs on the four AMIS crops (wheat, rice, maize and soybeans) in the selected AMIS countries. 

  • Data on specific or compound tariffs are not considered for this graph, nor are Other Duties and Charges (ODC) and information on mixed commodity classes. The number of notifications differs from year to year and not all countries notify each year.
  • Original data source: Tariff Analysis Online facility (WTO)

Producer support

The AMIS policy database records information on several domestic policies. The figures below focus on two estimates of producer support, namely the Producer Nominal Protection Coefficient and the % Producer Single Commodity Transfers.

The producer support estimates are sourced from existing OECD databases.

Producer support - Producer Nominal Protection Coefficient

Composition — multiple AMIS countries

This figure shows the producer nominal protection coefficient (NPC) for all AMIS crops for the selected AMIS countries. 

  • The producer NPC is defined as the ratio between the average price received by producers (measured at the farm gate), including net payments per unit of current output, and the border price (measured at the farm gate). For instance, an NPC of 1.10 suggests that farmers, overall, received prices that were 10% above international market levels.
  • Original data source: Producer and Consumer Support Estimates database (OECD)
Composition by AMIS country

This figure compares the producer nominal protection coefficient (NPC) for the AMIS crops relevant to the selected AMIS country.

  • The producer NPC is defined as the ratio between the average price received by producers (measured at the farm gate), including net payments per unit of current output, and the border price (measured at the farm gate). For instance, an NPC of 1.10 suggests that farmers, overall, received prices that were 10% above international market levels.
  • Original data source: Producer and Consumer Support Estimates database (OECD)

Producer support - % Producer Single Commodity Transfers

Composition — multiple AMIS countries

This figure shows the % producer single commodity transfers (SCT) for all AMIS crops for the selected AMIS countries

  • The producer SCT is defined as the annual monetary value of gross transfers from consumers and taxpayers to agricultural producers, measured at the farm gate level, arising from policies linked to the production of a single commodity such that the producer must produce the designated commodity in order to receive the transfer. The % producer SCT is the commodity SCT transfers as a share of gross receipts for the specific commodity.
  • Original data source: Producer and Consumer Support Estimates database (OECD)
Composition by AMIS country

This figure compares the % producer single commodity transfers (SCT) for all AMIS crops for the selected AMIS country.

  • The producer SCT is defined as the annual monetary value of gross transfers from consumers and taxpayers to agricultural producers, measured at the farm gate level, arising from policies linked to the production of a single commodity such that the producer must produce the designated commodity in order to receive the transfer. The % producer SCT is the commodity SCT transfers as a share of gross receipts for the specific commodity.
  • Original data source: Producer and Consumer Support Estimates database (OECD)
Last Update of AMIS Policy Database: July 2022