Water risks, disasters and climate change

 

BUTTON Water risk, disaster and climate change2

 

The OECD identifies for major risks related to water: risk of too much, too little and too polluted water; and disruption to freshwater systems. In addition, lack of access to water supply and sanitation can be considered as another water-related risk. The OECD argues that investing in water security is a condition for sustainable growth and development.

Managing water-related risks requires improved policy coherence across sectors, such as climate change adaptation, water management and disaster risk reduction. The OECD analyses best policy responses. Specific work focuses on water in the context of adaptation to climate change. The Roundtable on Financing Water ambitions to expedite investment that contributes to water security and sustainable growth.

 

WATER security for better lives

The OECD contends that managing these risks is a driver for sustainable growth and development. The four risks need to be addressed in conjunction, as focusing on one can increase exposure or vulnerability to others.

 

Managing water-related risks and disasters

The critical policy challenge is how to best prioritise investments suited to different risks.  It also requires effective co-ordination across levels of government, ensuring local level knowledge and needs are integrated in higher level prioritisation of water-related investments. If coordinated effectively, these efforts can set an incentive structure that delivers more resilient societies. The Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted by governments at the 3rd World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in March 2015, integrates risk governance as one of its main priorities.

The OECD, through its Reviews of risk management policies, assists governments in developing tailored policy responses to these challenges. As an example, the OECD Review on the resilience to Major Floods from the Seine in Ile-de-France led to the establishment of a new governance structure for institutions in charge of prevention policies and emergency preparedness to work better together towards reaching an established target of resilience for the metropolitan area. In a cross-country study “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance”, the OECD shows that countries face a difficult challenge of maintaining the protective levels of preventive infrastructure.

 

water and adaptation to climate change

Climate change is reshaping the future for freshwater. More torrential rains, floods and droughts can be expected in many areas. Changing precipitation patterns are shifting rainy seasons and affecting the timing and quantity of melt water from snow pack and glaciers. Impacts on water quality can be expected and freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable.

Adaptation is not about maintaining the status quo at all costs. Instead, it is about better managing water risks for an uncertain future. The report Water and Climate Change: Policies to Navigate Uncharted Waters provides policy guidance to prioritise action, and improve the efficiency, timeliness and equity of adaption decisions; and is supplemented by a survey across all 34 member countries and the European Commission to take stock of progress and collect examples of good practice.

The report Climate Change Risks and Adaptation: Linking Policy and Economics shows how countries can move from planning to implementing adaptation. It provides estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation at the national and regional scale, and examines how adaptation is being funded in OECD countries; and shows how innovative decision-making approaches can be used to minimise investment needs, while being robust to uncertainty.

 

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