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OECD reports on water

 

The OECD series on water provides policy analysis and guidance on the economic, financial and governance aspects of water resources management. These aspects generally lie at the heart of the water problem and hold the key to unlocking the policy puzzle. A list of upcoming and past reports can be found below, including:

 

2019 

Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater: Hazards and Policy Responses

Pharmaceuticals are essential for human and animal health but they are increasingly recognised as a contaminant to environmental and human health when their residues enter freshwater systems: psychiatric drugs alter fish behaviour; endocrine disrupting pharmaceuticals cause reproduction toxicity in fish and increased risk of breast or prostate cancer in humans; and the overuse of antibiotics is linked to antimicrobial resistance – a global health crisis. The situation is set to worsen with growing use of pharmaceuticals projected with economic growth, ageing populations, advances in healthcare, and increased livestock and fish production. This report helps to close the science-policy loop. It provides policy guidance to cost-effectively reduce human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in freshwater, and their associated risks to human and environmental health.

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Making Blended Finance Work for Water and Sanitation: Unlocking Commercial Finance for SDG 6

Blended finance can unlock additional commercial finance for water and sanitation and contribute to delivering on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular on SDG 6 ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. This publication takes a commercial investment perspective and provides insights into three subsectors: (1) water and sanitation utilities, (2) small-scale off-grid sanitation and (3) multi-purpose water infrastructure and landscape-based approaches. The publication draws out recommendations for policy makers and practitioners to apply and scale innovative blended finance approaches where most appropriate.

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Enhancing the Economic Regulatory System for Moldova’s Water Supply and Sanitation

This report aims to support the development of a sound economic regulatory system for the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in the Republic of Moldova. The prevailing policy framework calls for drastic developments in WSS to modernise and optimise WSS systems and improve operational efficiency (non-revenue water, staff-output ratios etc.) – in line with domestic and international commitments (including the Association Agreement with the European Union, the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement and the national WSS strategy). This report outlines ways and means for strengthening the capacity of the Moldovan government to provide sound regulation and that of WSS operators to deliver higher standards of service while ensuring the affordability of WSS services.

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Responding to Rising Seas: OECD Country Approaches to Tackling Coastal Risks

This report reviews how OECD countries can use their national adaptation planning processes to respond to this challenge. Specifically, the report examines how countries approach shared costs and responsibilities for coastal risk management and how this encourages or hinders risk-reduction behaviour by households, businesses and different levels of government. The report outlines policy tools that national governments can use to encourage an efficient, effective and equitable response to ongoing coastal change. It is informed by new analysis on the future costs of sea-level rise, and the main findings from four case studies (Canada, Germany, New Zealand and the United Kingdom).

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2018 Managing the Water-Energy-Land-Food Nexus in Korea

This report assesses the key bottlenecks within the water-energy-land-food nexus in Korea, and proposes policy recommendations and governance arrangements to future-proof environmental integrity and enhance sustainable growth. The increasing pressure caused by urbanisation, industrialisation, population growth and climate change in Korea has led to more land consumption and augmented water supply, at the expense of the environment and at a high cost for public finance. Korea has engaged with the OECD via a national policy dialogue to explore best practices from the wider international community to better manage the nexus at the river basin scale.

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  Managing Weather-Related Disasters in Southeast Asian Agriculture

Southeast Asia’s exposure to increasingly frequent and intense weather-related disasters is a growing concern for agricultural producers of the region. This study reviews policy approaches to droughts, floods and typhoons in Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam in an effort to identify good practices and strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sector.

  Managing Weather-Related Disasters in Southeast Asian Agriculture
  Strengthening Shardara Multi-Purpose Water Infrastructure in Kazakhstan

More than 8 000 large multi-purpose water infrastructures (MPWIs) around the world contribute to economic development, as well as water, food and energy security, encompassing all human-made water systems including dams, dykes, reservoirs and associated irrigation canals and water supply networks. This report looks at the choice and design of MPWI investment strategies that ensure a high economic return on investments and potential bankability, based on application of a computer model and lessons learned from 15 international MPWI case studies.

 

 

 

  Strengthening Shardara Multi-Purpose Water Infrastructure in Kazakhstan
  Implementing the OECD Principles on Water Governance: Indicator Framework and Evolving Practices

Water and its improved governance are critical for economic growth, social inclusiveness and environmental sustainability. Three years after the adoption of the OECD Water Governance Principles, this report takes stock of their use and dissemination. It provides a water governance indicator framework and a set of evolving practices for bench-learning, building on lessons learned from different countries and contexts.

  Implementing the OECD Principles on Water Governance
  Facilitating the Reform of Economic Instruments for Water Management in Georgia

This study assesses the use of economic instruments for water resources management in Georgia and considers options for reform following the 2014 signature of an Association Agreement with the EU committing to alignment with the EU’s Water Framework Directive. This includes the systematic use of economic instruments, including water pricing, to recover the cost of water services provided to households, industry and farmers, among other measures.

  Facilitating the Reform of Economic Instruments for Water Management in Georgia
2017 Water Charges in Brazil: The Ways Forward 

This report examines the current system of water abstraction and pollution charges in operation in Brazil. It assesses the current system’s implementation challenges and provides possible solutions. The report explores how water charges can be both an effective means for dealing with water security issues, and a tool for enhancing economic growth and social welfare.

 

 

 

Water Charges in Brazil

 

Greening the Blue Economy in Pomorskie, Poland

As coastal area on the Baltic Sea in north-central Poland, Pomorskie faces unique challenges and opportunities associated with the transition to a green economy, a diversified economy, growing population and significant natural resources. This report focuses on the sustainable development of the oceans and coastlines surrounding the region, known as the blue economy.

 

 

Greening the Blue Economy in Pomorskie, Poland

  Improving Domestic Financial Support Mechanisms in Moldova's Water and Sanitation Sector

The water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Moldova is not financially sustainable. This report analyses several options for streamlining and strengthening domestic financial support mechanisms (DFSMs) in terms of both supply and demand, discusses different scenarios and recommends a number of actions to ensure effective DFSM implementation.

 

Improving Domestic Financial Support Mechanisms in Moldovas Water and Sanitation Sector

  Groundwater Allocation: Managing Growing Pressures on Quantity and Quality

Groundwater allocation determines who is able to use groundwater resources, how, when and where. It directly affects the value (economic, ecological, socio-cultural) that individuals and society obtain from groundwater, today and in the future. This report focusses on how allocation regimes for groundwater or conjunctively managed surface and groundwater systems can be designed to bring about the desired policy outcomes, in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness and social equity.

 

Groundwater Allocation

 

Reforming Sanitation in Armenia: Towards a National Strategy

This report assesses the state of Armenia’s sanitation services, which are in poor shape, and proposes ways forward for reforming the sector. The state of Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate, with 51% of the population in rural areas using unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks, and better access but degraded sewerage-system infrastructure in urban areas, posing health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water.

 

  Reforming Sanitation in Armenia
 

Water Risk Hotspots for Agriculture

Agriculture is expected to face increasing water risks that will impact production, markets, trade and food security - risks that can be mitigated with targeted policy actions on water hotspots. This report develops the hotspot approach, provides an application at the global scale, and presents a mitigation policy action plan. The People’s Republic of China, India and the United States are identified as countries facing the greatest water risks for agriculture production globally.

 

  Water Risk Hotspots for Agriculture
 

Enhancing Water Use Efficiency in Korea: Policy Issues and Recommendations

The report, building on a policy dialogue with a range of stakeholders in Korea, analyses how economic policy instruments under the responsibility of the Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport can be adjusted to contribute to water policy objectives. It also investigates how Smart Water Management Korea, an initiative by K-water that combines information and communication technology with water technology, can be harnessed to better contribute to water management in the country.

 

 

Enhancing Water Use Efficiency in Korea

 

Diffuse Pollution, Degraded Waters - Emerging Policy Solutions

After decades of regulation and investment to reduce point source water pollution, OECD countries still face water quality challenges (e.g. eutrophication) from diffuse agricultural and urban sources of pollution, that is disperse pollution from surface runoff, soil filtration and atmospheric deposition. This report outlines the water quality challenges facing OECD countries today, presents a range of policy instruments and innovative case studies of diffuse pollution control, and concludes with an integrated policy framework to tackle diffuse water pollution.

  Diffuse Pollution, Degraded Waters

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