Share

Publications & Documents


  • 21-October-2020

    English

    Anti-competitive and regulatory barriers in the United States labour market

    Occupational licensing and non-competition agreements are two important types of labour market regulation in the United States, both covering around one fifth of all workers. While some regulation is needed to protect safety and ensure quality of services, it also creates entry barriers and reduces competition with important costs for job mobility, earnings and productivity growth. Employment opportunities for low-skilled workers and disadvantaged groups tend to be particularly affected by these barriers. The States are mainly responsible for labour market regulation and the variation across States is similar to the variation in the European Union. Harmonising requirements and scaling back occupational licensing as well as restricting the use of non-competition covenants could help to circumvent the secular decline in dynamism. However, attempts to reform often face stiff opposition from associations of professionals. The federal government has limited influence, but can in some cases help by shifting the burden from workers to meet regulatory requirements onto States and employers to show that high and differing regulatory standards are needed.
  • 9-October-2020

    English

    Labour demand weakening during the COVID-19 pandemic in US cities - Stylised facts and factors related to regional resilience

    This paper explores patterns of short-term labour demand weakening in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of the United States and the associated regional factors. The paper considers online job vacancy postings in February-June 2020. The data show that in larger MSAs, online job postings contracted more and the recovery was slower compared to smaller MSAs. Non-tradable service occupations, particularly those involving face-to-face interactions, contracted the most. The regression analysis reveals that different metropolitan characteristics were associated with the initial drop (February-April) and the recovery (May-June) in online job posting. The associations of online job postings with regional characteristics also differed between teleworkable (with high feasibility of performing work duties remotely) and non-teleworkable jobs. Cities with higher share of teleworkable employment had more online vacancy announcements during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 2-October-2020

    English

    International Compendium of Entrepreneurship Policies

    It is increasingly understood that entrepreneurship plays a critical role in economic growth and well-being. But which policies can governments develop to release its benefits? This publication offers guidance and inspiration. It identifies the range of entrepreneurship policies being pursued internationally, the problems the policies seek to solve and how they are designed and implemented. The focus is on how to create a broad base of start-ups with the potential for sustainability and growth by building a pipeline of new entrepreneurs, supporting start-ups to overcome barriers in areas such as skills, finance and innovation and stimulating vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystems. The publication examines the rationale for entrepreneurship policy, presents a typology of policy approaches and highlights principles for policy success. The points are illustrated by 16 case studies of inspiring practice policies from 12 OECD countries. These cases span policies for regulations and taxation, entrepreneurship education and training, advice and coaching, access to finance, internationalisation, innovation, and holistic packages for ecosystem building. Helpful summary tables guide readers to the information that will respond to their questions. The publication will give readers an overview of key entrepreneurship policy interventions and tips on entrepreneurship policy success.
  • 14-September-2020

    English

    Services trade costs in the United States: A simulation based on the OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index

    While services account for almost 80% of GDP in the United States and a growing share of global trade, regulatory barriers to services trade around the world are still high. Using a hypothetical liberalisation scenario, this paper assesses the potential reduction of trade costs that could be achieved in 17 US services sectors. The analysis relies on the OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) which records barriers to services trade in 46 economies. The illustrative scenario assumes a 50% reduction in the gap between the current STRI score of the United States and the score of the least restrictive country in each sector. The results highlight the economic benefits of aligning US services regulation with global best practice. The average reduction in trade costs across the 17 sectors analysed would amount to 9.7 percentage points, with a quarter of the sectors experiencing reductions larger than 14.1 percentage points and another quarter experiencing reductions smaller than 5.3 percentage points.
  • 11-July-2020

    English, PDF, 103kb

    United States - Commodity projections

    These graphs offer a brief summary of the commodity trade situation in the country.

    Related Documents
  • 9-July-2020

    English

    Launch of the 2020 OECD Economic Survey of the United States

    The unemployment rate has also risen precipitously in recent months, reaching 14.7% in April before falling back to 11.1% in June. Worryingly, the last time the US unemployment rate exceeded the recent peak was during the Great Depression.

    Related Documents
  • 9-July-2020

    English

    United States: extending support and lowering regulatory barriers could energize the recovery from Covid-19

    Swift action by the U.S. government has helped shield households and businesses from the immediate economic shock of the Covid-19 pandemic, even as efforts continue to bring the spread of the virus under control.

    Related Documents
  • 9-July-2020

    English

    Mr. Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, to present the 2020 OECD Economic Survey of the United States, 9 July 2020

    Mr. Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, will present the 2020 OECD Economic Survey of the United States on Thursday 9 July 2020, alongside Mr. Tyler Goodspeed, Acting Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA).

    Related Documents
  • 8-July-2020

    English

    Labour Market Relevance and Outcomes of Higher Education in Four US States - Ohio, Texas, Virginia and Washington

    Across OECD countries, higher education graduates enjoy higher employment rates and earnings than workers with only an upper secondary qualification. However, not all graduates find jobs that make full use of their skills and help them launch rewarding careers, and employers in some economic sectors point to a lack of qualified graduates. Policy makers are concerned about the current alignment of higher education systems to labour markets, and are increasingly uneasy about the future of work and the resilience of higher education systems in uncertain economic times. This report, which focuses on four US states – Ohio, Texas, Virginia and Washington – is the third of a series of country-specific reviews conducted as part of the OECD project on the labour market relevance and outcomes of higher education. The report offers a comprehensive review of graduate outcomes and policies supporting alignment between higher education and the labour market in the four participating states in 2018-19, an overview of the US labour market and higher education context, and a range of policy examples from across OECD jurisdictions to help improve the alignment of higher education and the labour market.
  • 7-July-2020

    English, PDF, 697kb

    OECD Employment Outlook 2020 - Key findings for the United States

    In the United States, hours worked fell by over 15%, on average, in the first three months since the COVID-19 crisis began. For comparison, the average change in hours worked for the first three months of the financial crisis of 2008 was just 1.7%. In addition, GDP is projected to have fallen by 13.6% between the last quarter of 2019 and the second quarter of 2020.

  • 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>