The modern structure of the UK economy is largely based on knowledge, ideas and innovation and its well integrated global value chains. These factors help boost the country’s economic growth, but at the same time they make it highly susceptible to the risk of trade in counterfeit goods. This risk negatively affects UK rights holders, the UK government, and the reputation of UK firms. This report measures the direct, economic effects of counterfeiting on consumers, retail and manufacturing industry and governments in the United Kingdom. It does so from two perspectives: the impact on these three groups of imports of fake products into the UK, and the impact of the global trade in fake products on UK intellectual property rights holders.
There are now 46 Adherents to the 2009 OECD Declaration on Green Growth. Bulgaria has joined Costa Rica, Colombia, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Peru, Tunisia, as well as OECD members in having adhered to the Declaration.
This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances, based on five country-specific policy notes for France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom. It provides a comparative assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; the design of education and training systems and their responsiveness to changing skill needs; the re-training of unemployed individuals; and the improvement of skills use and skills matching in the labour market. The assessment is based on country visits, desk research and data analysis conducted by the OECD secretariat in the five countries reviewed. Examples of good practice from other countries are also discussed.
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The UK headline labour market indicators compare well with OECD averages. At the end of 2016, the UK unemployment rate stood at 4.8% against the OECD average of 6.2%, and the UK employment rate at 65.5% was more than 4 percentage points above the OECD average.
In a letter to British Prime Minister Theresa May, OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría wrote today:
People of my generation grew up with a set of intuitive assumptions about human progress: hatred and prejudice would give way to reason, democracy would displace authoritarianism, and the economic good times would roll and roll.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
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The United Kingdom had the 27th lowest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country occupied the same position in 2015. The average single worker in the United Kingdom faced a tax wedge of 30.8% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.
Foreign bribery enforcement in the UK has increased significantly since 2012 notably thanks to the pragmatic and effective approach taken by the Serious Fraud Office (SFO) to investigate and resolve foreign bribery cases.