This annual publication presents detailed country notes and internationally comparable tax data for all OECD countries from 1965 onwards.
This publication provides detailed country notes on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries.
There are now 45 Adherents to the 2009 OECD Declaration on Green Growth. Georgia has joined Costa Rica, Colombia, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Peru, Tunisia, as well as OECD members in having adhered to the Declaration.
Since the last International Energy Agency (IEA) review of Turkey’s energy policies, the country’s reliance on natural gas use has grown along with rising oil and gas imports, leaving the Turkish economy increasingly exposed to the volatility in oil and gas prices. Turkey aims to promote sustainable economic growth - the IEA urges the government to set a longer term energy policy agenda for 2030. However, owing to declining global liquefied natural gas prices, Turkey now has an opportunity to reduce its single supplier dependence, build a competitive gas market, and move ahead with its plans to create a regional gas hub.
Turkey’s power sector reforms have attracted private investment and fostered economic growth and energy access. Integration into a regional gas and electricity trade framework is moving along as a result of the first interconnection of Turkey with the European electricity grid and the construction of the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline that will deliver gas from the Caspian to Turkey and the European Union.
In that context, the IEA urges Turkey to complete the liberalisation of its electricity and gas markets in order to attract critically needed investment. The review also notes that Turkey should set up independent transmission system operators, competitive wholesale markets, and foster resilient and modern gas and electricity infrastructure.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Turkey and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
English, PDF, 539kb
The number of young people not in employment, education or training (NEETs) remains elevated in many countries since the crisis. This country note examines the characteristics of those at risk of being NEET in Turkey along with policies to help meet the challenge. It also includes many new youth-specific indicators on family formation, self-sufficiency, income and poverty, health and social cohesion.
Productivity growth in the Turkish agricultural sector is supported today by better technologies, crop varieties and animal breeds. Yet improvements have slowed since the late 2000s, and the productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy remains large. To overcome these challenges, Turkey will need to reduce the substantial technological and human resource disparities between small-holder and commercial segments in agriculture, and ensure more equal regional development. Considerable structural adjustment is also required, both within agriculture and in the overall economy, supported by broad policy actions in the areas of labour, education, social security systems, and land reform. Important efforts have been made to boost national innovation systems, but there remains considerable catch up in terms of the quality and impact of R&D.
Economic growth has proved remarkably vigorous given the very adverse circumstances of the past two years, which included four national elections, wars across the southern border, severe domestic tensions in the Eastern regions, trade restrictions with Russia and the inflow of millions of refugees.
English, PDF, 514kb
While the employment rate in Turkey has been catching up with the OECD average, a substantial gap remains: in the last quarter of 2015 the employment rate in Turkey reached 47.8% – more than 12 percentage points below the OECD average (60.2%). The employment rate is projected to rise further through 2017, driven by rising employment among women.
English, PDF, 533kb
The Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) directly measures proficiency in several information-processing skills – namely literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environments.
English, PDF, 1,094kb
This note presents selected findings based on the set of well-being indicators published in How's Life? 2016.