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Physical and human capital (especially second- and third-level education), financial development and some aspects of labour market institutions are important policy and institutional areas that determine comparative advantage today, according to this paper.
Tariffs, government policies and availability of credit and electricity are among the factors that restrict the trade expansion of developing countries. This report identifies and quantifies these constraints, and includes case studies of Azerbaijan and Uganda.
As part of the OECD accession process, Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia participated in Reviews of Market Openness with the OECD Trade Committee. These country reviews examine to what extent domestic regulations directly or indirectly distort or facilitate international competition.
English, , 706kb
Over the last two decades, Israel has opened its economy to international trade and investment by lowering tariffs and improving the domestic regulatory environment for business. This review describes progress on regulatory reform in Israel, which suggests these overall trends will continue.
English, , 719kb
An analysis of Slovenia’s trade policy-related institutions and regulations and their influence on market openness, covering transparency, non-discrimination, trade restrictiveness, harmonisation towards international standards, conformity assessment procedures and intellectual property rights.
English, , 650kb
An analysis of Estonia’s trade policy-related institutions and regulations and their influence on market openness, covering transparency, non-discrimination, trade restrictiveness, harmonisation towards international standards, conformity assessment procedures and intellectual property rights.
English, , 700kb
This review highlights Chile’s well developed regulatory framework for trade, including recent regulatory reforms considered here in light of market openness principles. It shows that transparency is well supported in Chile’s regulatory system.
How can trade help developing countries reduce poverty and boost their economy? The Aid for Trade Initiative is explained in a new book that shows how it secures resources and raises awareness of the role of trade in development.
Commodity prices surged in 2006-08 in Argentina, Brazil, China, Chile, India, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine and Vietnam. Government policy responses to these price surges were not always successful in minimising the impact on consumers and producers, this report finds.
Momentum for intellectual property (IP) reform in China is related to economic potential there, involving privatization policies, trade and FDI policies, and the government's role in innovation strategy. This study looks at IP issues facing firms operating in China.