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Firms find advantages in sourcing inputs from abroad and in fragmenting their production process. This report describes and illustrates new firm strategies of vertical specialisation and explores the trade policy implications of new patterns of trade and investment.
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Many developing countries took measures in the face of high international agricultural commodity prices from 2006 to 2008, while an international response focused on emergency relief and renewed investment in agricultural development. This paper examines these two approaches.
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A second update on developments in the field of regional tradeagreements and environment covering the period late 2007 to December 2008. It complements the 2007 publication “Environment and Regional Trade Agreements”, and the first update presented to the JWPTE in December 2007
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This paper provides an in-depth examination of the trade effects of three regional trade agreements (RTAs) in the agricultural sector: the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR).
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Analysis of how domestic regulation affects trade in services through commercial presence.
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This paper examines whether the growth in agricultural trade of 69 countries between 1996 and 2006 has taken place at the intensive or the extensive margin.
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This document provides an update on developments in the field of regional trade agreements and environment in late 2006 and 2007. It is based on publicly available information and includes an overview of provisions on environment in trade agreements signed since end 2006.
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Agri-food sectors have seen an increasing use of contracts, which raises concerns such as market transparency and the role of government. This paper looks at the incentives behind this increase in contract use and identifies emerging policy issues.
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This study examines the extent and nature of informal cross-border trade in selected Sub-Saharan African countries and identifies which trade facilitation measures have the potential to encourage traders to switch from informal to formal trade.
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Significant regulatory reforms have taken place in the service sectors of Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Morocco over the last decade, but a broad range of restrictions still remain.