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This paper proposes a new measure of stringency to measure the consequences of environmental regulations on investment, labour demand, and patterns of international trade that would be based on emissions data and which could be constructed separately for different pollutants.
Governments intervene in non-renewable natural resources sectors more than in many others, including through the use of export taxes and quotas. This paper aims to increase understanding of the economic effects of export restrictions, in particular as they apply to the mining sector.
This paper provides an update on recent developments in the field of Regional Trade Agreements and the environment. Issues arising in the implementation of RTAs with environmental considerations are examined as well as experience in assessing their environmental impacts.
Efforts to document government support benefiting specific sectors or industries have paid scant attention to support given to the non-energy minerals sector. The issue of support for this sector is explored by way of a case study of Australia, a leading producer and exporter of minerals.
The costs of putting in place and maintaining trade facilitation measures are not particularly large and are far smaller than the benefits gained from implementing these measures, according to this study. Moreover, an increasing amount of technical and financial assistance to implement these measures has been made available to developing countries over the last decade.
The potential multilateralisation of government procurement commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs) presents many issues and challenges. To what extent do RTAs go beyond the 2012 revised Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), and how do they differ among trading partners? This report surveys 47 RTAs in force with government procurement provisions where an OECD member is a party.
The costs to implement and maintain trade facilitation measures are not large and far smaller than the benefits gained from implementing these measures, according to this study. Moreover, an increasing amount of technical and financial assistance to implement these measures has been made available to developing countries over the last decade.
International firms in developing economies tend to employ more workers and pay higher wages than firms dealing exclusively with the domestic market, according to this paper demonstrating the links between global value chains (GVCs)and labour market outcomes. Engagement in international activities provides greater opportunities for women to enter the formal employment market.
How do global value chains (GVCs) impact employment markets in developing countries? This paper reviews the literature on the subject, focusing on the labour market impacts of three processes that lie at the core of GVC development: importing, exporting, and foreign direct investment (FDI). Two case studies are presented
Intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, will become increasingly important in the electricity supply mix if ambitious renewable energy targets are to be met. This paper
presents evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies and measures to increase the capacity utilisation of wind and other intermittent renewable energy plants.