Education and media services both provide services that embody local cultures, in which there is extensive public sector participation and significant domestic regulation. At the same time, they are dramatically affected by the information and communication technology revolution. The production of information content now involves huge costs in terms of research and development or artistic talent, while the cost of making such products available to other consumers is very low. This in turn challenges the effectiveness of domestic regulation and raises fundamental questions about its purpose, calling for an increased scope for international trade and investment, and the development of supply chains. This book provides readers with a comprehensive and consistent treatment of policy in the higher education and media services sector across a range of Asian economies little studied in the existing literature. It gives an overview of global trends in each area, followed by detailed, country-specific studies. Through comparative work, it identifies common elements across these sectors and highlights critical implications for trade policy.
The ITF Transport Outlook 2013 presents and discusses global scenarios concerning the development of transport volumes through 2050. The analysis highlights the impact of alternative economic growth scenarios on passenger and freight flows and the consequences of rapid urbanisation outside the OECD . Under any scenario, transport volumes grow very strongly in non-OECD regions, and curbing negative side-effects (including greenhouse gas emissions, local pollution and congestion) is a major challenge. The Outlook also discusses the challenge of establishing sustainable funding mechanisms for the transport infrastructure, emphasising the need for long run funding strategies in a context of growing global investment demand. The Outlook includes a comprehensive statistical annex.
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Prepared for the 2013 G20 Summit in Saint Petersburg, this joint OECD-WTO-UNCTAD report analyses the functioning of global value chains and their relationship with trade and investment flows, development and jobs.
This study presents a tool to help design logical frameworks for results-based management of aid for trade. What are donors and partner countries trying to achieve? Three different levels of possible objectives (i.e. direct, intermediate and final) are explored. Trade is treated as an intermediate objective, serving as a transmission mechanism, with an increase in the value for trade as the final objective. Six case studies - Bangladesh, Colombia, Ghana, Rwanda, Solomon Islands and Viet Nam - provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges involved in introducing a tool for managing results in an agenda that covers a broad area of interventions that are aimed at building trade-related supply side capacities.
History has shown that openness to trade is a key ingredient for economic success and for improved living standards. But simply opening the economy to international trade is not enough. Developing countries – especially the least developed – require help in building their trade-related capacities in terms of information, policies, procedures, institutions and infrastructure, so as to compete effectively in the global economy. Aid for trade aims to help countries overcome the supply-side constraints that inhibit their ability to benefit from market access opportunities. The almost 300 case stories show clear results of how aid-for-trade programmes are helping developing countries to build human, institutional and infrastructure capacity to integrate into regional and global markets and to make good use of trade opportunities. Together, these stories are a rich and varied source of information on the results of aid for trade activities – an indication of the progress achieved by the Aid-for-Trade Initiative.
Global agricultural production is expected to grow 1.5% a year on average over the coming decade, compared with annual growth of 2.1% between 2003 and 2012, according to the latest OECD-FAO agricultural market projections for production, consumption, trade, stocks and prices of featured commodities.
Green growth is vital to secure a brighter, more sustainable future for developing countries. Developing countries will pay a high price for failing to tackle local and global environmental threats because they are more dependent on natural resources and are more vulnerable to resources scarcity and natural disasters.
This book presents evidence that green growth is the only way to sustain growth and development over the long-term. Green growth does not replace sustainable development, but is a means to achieve it. Green growth values natural assets, which are essential to the well-being and livelihoods of people in developing countries, and if policies are designed to respond to the needs of the poorest, green growth can contribute to poverty reduction and social equity.
Building on experience with green growth policies in developing countries and extensive consultations with developing country stakeholders, this report provides a twin-track approach with agendas for national and international action. It responds to developing country concerns about the technical challenges arising from early efforts to “go green” and documents a wealth of examples from developing countries. Green growth objectives and policies will need to be mainstreamed into every government objective and most importantly, into national budgets. Green growth policies can use untapped opportunities to boost domestic fiscal revenues and attract quality investment for years to come. International co-operation is needed to help mitigate the short-term costs that may be associated with pursuing green growth. International flows of money, trade and technology know-how is vital to encourage pursuit of green growth in developing countries.
Global Value Chains (GVCs) have exploded in the past decade and refer to the international dispersion of design, production, assembly, marketing and distribution of services, activities, and products. Different stages in the production process are increasingly located across different economies, and intermediate inputs like parts and components are produced in one country and then exported to other countries for further production and/or assembly into final products. The functional and spatial fragmentation that has occurred within GVCs has significantly reshaped the global economic landscape, thereby raising some new major policy challenges for OECD countries and emerging countries alike: trade policy, competitiveness, upgrading and innovation and the management of global systemic risk.
The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address the global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules. But, surprisingly, the gains that can be achieved through greater co-ordination of rules and their application across jurisdictions remain largely under-analysed.
This volume complements the stocktaking report on International Regulatory Co-operation: Rules for a Global World by providing evidence on regulatory co-operation in the area of transboundary water management and through the fast development of transnational private regulation.